SOLID SILVER Three pence 1911 Coin Machu Picchu Discovered Vintage King George • £0.99 (2024)

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Seller: anddownthewaterfall ✉️ (34,167) 99.8%, Location: Manchester, GB, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 315513995097 SOLID SILVER Three pence 1911 Coin Machu Picchu Discovered Vintage King George. In 2000 it was reported that microbes had been detected living in the South Pole ice. Juan Manuel Fangio, Argentine race car driver (d. 1995). David Ogilvy, British advertising executive (d. 1999). Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov, Russian aeronautical engineer (d. 1995). 1911 Three Pence Coin Antique Solid Silver This is a One Hundred Year old British Threepence Coin which was minted in 1911 In Good Condition given it is one hundred years old The main events from 1911 Ronald Reagan was Born Machu Picchu was discovered Amundsen beats Scott to discover South Pole Solid 0.925 Silver Starting at its monetary value one Penny...With No Reserve..If your the only bidder you win it for 1p....Grab a Bargain!!!! Would make an Excellent Charm or Collectible Keepsake Souvenir of the worlds most famous ship I will have a lot of Memrobilia items items on Ebay so Check out my other items ! Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback Check out my other items ! All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. Be sure to add me to your favourites list ! All Items Dispatched within 24 hours of Receiving Payment . Thanks for Looking and Best of Luck with the Bidding!! 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Vikram Samvat 1967–1968 - Shaka Samvat 1832–1833 - Kali Yuga 5011–5012 Holocene calendar 11911 Igbo calendar 911–912 Iranian calendar 1289–1290 Islamic calendar 1329–1330 Japanese calendar Meiji 44 (明治44年) Javanese calendar 1840–1841 Juche calendar N/A Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 days Korean calendar 4244 Minguo calendar 1 before ROC 民前1年 Nanakshahi calendar 443 Thai solar calendar 2453–2454 Tibetan calendar 阳金狗年 (male Iron-Dog) 2037 or 1656 or 884 — to — 阴金猪年 (female Iron-Pig) 2038 or 1657 or 885 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1911th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 911th year of the 2nd millennium, the 11th year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1911, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. A highlight was the race for the South Pole. January 3: Siege of Sidney Street Events January Main article: January 1911 Through mid-January (starting 31 December) – The first Industrial Airplane Show is held in conjunction with the U.S. International Auto Show, at Manhattan's Grand Central Palace in New York.[1] Charles W. Chappelle (1872–1941), a member of the U.S. Aeronautical Reserve, is the only African-American to invent and display an airplane, for which he wins a medal.[2] January 3 1911 Kebin earthquake: An earthquake of 7.7 moment magnitude strikes near Almaty in Russian Turkestan, killing 450 or more people.[3] Siege of Sidney Street: Two Latvian anarchists die, after a seven-hour siege against a combined police and military force. Home Secretary Winston Churchill arrives to oversee events. January 5 – Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity is founded at Indiana University Bloomington.[4] January 14 – Roald Amundsen's South Pole expedition makes landfall, on the eastern edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. January 18 – Eugene B. Ely lands on the deck of the USS Pennsylvania stationed in San Francisco harbor, marking the first time an aircraft lands on a ship. January 26 – The United States and Canada announce the successful negotiation of their first reciprocal trade agreement. January 30 – The Cypriot football club Anorthosis Famagusta FC is founded. February Main article: February 1911 February 5 The Missouri State Capitol building in Jefferson City, Missouri is destroyed by fire, after a bolt of lightning strikes the dome. The revolution in Haiti is suppressed after the leader, General Montreuil Guillaume, is captured by government troops and shot. General Millionard is executed two days later.[5] February 11 – The Lincoln Memorial Commission is established, to find an ideal site for the proposed Lincoln Memorial.[6] February 13 – HNK Hajduk Split, a Croatian football club, is founded. February 17 – The first "quasi-official" airmail flight occurs, when Fred Wiseman carries three letters between Petaluma and Santa Rosa, California. February 18 – The first official air mail flight, second overall, takes place from Allahabad, India to Naini, India, when Henri Pequet carries 6,500 letters a distance of 13 km. March Main article: March 1911 March 8 – International Women's Day is celebrated, for the first time in history.[7] March 25 – The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City kills 146. March 29 – The United States Army adopts a new service pistol, the M1911, designed by John Browning (it remains the U.S. service pistol for 74 years). April Main article: April 1911 April 3 – Jean Sibelius conducts the première of his Symphony No. 4, in Helsinki. April 8 – Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovers superconductivity; he presents his findings on April 28.[8] April 13 – Mexican Revolution: Rebels take Agua Prieta on the Sonora–Arizona border; government troops take the town back April 17, when the rebel leader "Red" López gets drunk. April 18 – SS Lusitania, a 5,557-ton Portuguese passenger liner en route from Mozambique to Lisbon, strikes Bellows Rock just off Cape Point and sinks. April 19 – Mexican Revolution: Francisco I. Madero's troops besiege Ciudad Juárez, but General Juan J. Navarro refuses his surrender demand. April 22 – A passenger train from Port Alfred to Grahamstown, South Africa derails on the Blaauwkrantz Bridge, and plunges into the ravine 200 feet (61 metres) below, killing 31 and seriously injuring 23.[9][10] April 26 – HŠK Građanski Zagreb (predecessor of GNK Dinamo Zagreb), a Croatian Association football club, is founded in Zagreb. April 27 – Huanghuagang Uprising: In China, rebels take five villages in an attempt to create a power base to fight Imperial rule; those who die are remembered as "The 72 Martyrs" (the event is also called the "Second Guangzhou Uprising" and the "Yellow Flower Mound Revolt"). May Main article: May 1911 May 8 – Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa launches an attack against government troops in Ciudad Juárez without Madero's permission; the government troops surrender on May 10. May 13–15 – Mexican Revolution – Torreón massacre: Over 300 Chinese residents are massacred by the revolutionary forces of Francisco I. Madero, in the Mexican city of Torreón. May 17 – Mexican Revolution: Porfirio Díaz is convinced to resign, but does not do so yet. May 21 – Mexican Revolution: In Ciudad Juárez, a peace treaty is signed between Madero's rebels and government troops. May 24 – Mexican Revolution: Government troops fire at anti-Diaz demonstrators in Mexico City, killing about 200 (officials claim only 40). May 25 – Mexican Revolution: Porfirio Díaz signs his resignation and leaves for Veracruz; on May 31 he leaves for exile in France. May 30 – The very first Indianapolis 500 automobile race is held in the United States, won by Ray Harroun at an average speed of 74.59 miles per hour. May 31 – The hull of the RMS Titanic is launched in Belfast, on the very same day RMS Olympic starts her sea trials. June Main article: June 1911 June 7 – Mexican Revolution: Francisco Madero arrives in Mexico City, just after the 1911 Michoacán earthquake. June 14 – RMS Olympic departs Southampton, England, for her maiden voyage, with a first call at Cherbourg, France. June 15 – RMS Olympic arrives in Queenstown, Ireland, to discharge and take up passengers. June 21 – RMS Olympic arrives in New York, United States, at the end of her maiden voyage. She proceeds to her quarantine station off Staten Island, which she leaves at 7:45 a.m., and is saluted on her way up New York Harbor by all kinds of craft, as she steams to Pier 59 in the North River. With the assistance of twelve tugs, Olympic is safely moored at 10 a.m. June 22 – George V is crowned King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, at Westminster Abbey in London. Moored at Pier 59 of New York Harbor, RMS Olympic is decorated for the occasion. June 25 – The Polish Football Union (PFU), later absorbed into the Polish Football Association (Polish: Polski Związek Piłki Nożnej, PZPN), is founded. June 28 – RMS Olympic departs New York, for her maiden eastbound voyage back to Southampton, England. June 28 – The Nakhla meteorite falls in the Abu Hummus region of Egypt, providing evidence of water on Mars. June – The Sixth Conference of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance is held in Stockholm, Sweden. July Main article: July 1911 A July 24: Machu Picchu is rediscovered. July 1 – The presence of the German warship Panther, in the Moroccan port of Agadir, triggers the Agadir Crisis. July 4 – RMS Olympic crosses the Atlantic to discharge passengers, and mails at Plymouth, England. July 5 – RMS Olympic arrives in Southampton, England, ending her maiden eastbound voyage from New York. July 24 – Hiram Bingham rediscovers Machu Picchu in Peru. August Main article: August 1911 August 21 – Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa is stolen from the Louvre museum in Paris by Vincenzo Peruggia; the theft is discovered the following day. August 27 – CSKA Moscow, a well known for professional multi-sports club in Russia, is officially founded. (Formerly part of the Soviet Union)[11] September Main article: September 1911 September 20 – RMS Olympic collides with HMS Hawke, causing considerable damage to both ships. September 25 – French battleship Liberté explodes at anchor in Toulon, France, killing around 300 on both the ship and the neighbouring area. September 29 – Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire. October Main article: October 1911 October 4 – China adopts "Cup of Solid Gold" as its first national anthem. However, it is never performed publicly and is replaced a few months later with a new composition. October 7 – Liberal leader Karl Staaff returns as Prime Minister of Sweden, after an Riksdag election victory based on the promises of defence cuts and social reforms. October 10 – The Wuchang Uprising starts the Xinhai Revolution, that leads to the founding of the Republic of China. October 16 – Mexican Revolution: Felix Diaz, nephew of Porfirio Díaz, occupies the port of Veracruz, as a sign of rebellion against Madero. October 26 – The Philadelphia Athletics defeat the New York Giants, 13–2, to win the 1911 World Series in 6 games. The game is tied 1–1 after three innings, but with four runs in the fourth, and seven runs in the seventh, the A's demolish the Giants. The most unusual play of the game is an inside-the-park home run made by the A's Jack Barry, on a bunt. November December 14: Roald Amundsen reaches the South Pole. Franz Marc, Blaues Pferd, 1911 Main article: November 1911 November 1 – The world's first combat aerial bombing mission takes place in Libya, during the Italo-Turkish War. Second Lieutenant Giulio Gavotti of Italy drops several small bombs. November 3 – Chevrolet officially enters the automobile market, in competition with the Ford Model T. November 4 – The Treaty of Berlin brings the Agadir Crisis to a close. This treaty leads Morocco to be split between France (as a protectorate) and Spain (as the colony of Spanish Sahara), with Germany forfeiting all claims to Morocco. In return, France gives Germany a portion of the French Congo (as Kamerun) and Germany cedes some of German Kamerun to France (as Chad). November 5 – Italy annexes Tripoli and Cyrenaica (confirmed by an act of the Italian Parliament on February 25, 1912). November 17 – Omega Psi Phi Fraternity Incorporated (the first black Greek-lettered organization founded at an American historically black college or university) is founded on the campus of Howard University, in Washington, D.C. December Main article: December 1911 December 1 – Outer Mongolia, the forerunner of modern Mongolia, is declared independent from the Chinese Empire. December 9 – A mine explosion near Briceville, Tennessee kills 84 miners, despite rescue efforts led by the United States Bureau of Mines. December 12 – The Delhi Durbar is held, to mark the coronation of George V and Queen Mary as Emperor and Empress of India, and the transfer of the capital of British India from Calcutta to Delhi. December 14 – Roald Amundsen's expedition reaches the South Pole. December 18 – The first exhibition, by Der Blaue Reiter group of painters, opens in Munich. December 24 – Lackawanna Cut-Off railway line opens in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. December 29 – Sun Yat-sen is elected Provisional President of the Republic of China. Date unknown The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition is published under American management in England, by Cambridge University Press. New Zealand-born British physicist Ernest Rutherford deduces the existence of a compact atomic nucleus from experiments involving Rutherford scattering, proposing the Rutherford model of the atom. Births January Hank Greenberg Zenkō Suzuki Eduardo Frei Montalva John S. McCain Jr. Danny Kaye Polykarp Kusch January 1 Hank Greenberg, American baseball player (d. 1986) Roman Totenberg, Polish-American violinist (d. 2012) January 2 – Pavel Rychagov, Soviet air ace, air force general (d. 1941) January 3 – Al Sack, American conductor, composer, and violinist (d. 1947) January 5 – Jean-Pierre Aumont, French actor (d. 2001) January 7 – Butterfly McQueen, American actress (d. 1995) January 10 Binod Bihari Chowdhury, Bangladeshi revolutionary (d. 2013) Norman Heatley, British biologist (d. 2004) January 11 Brunhilde Pomsel, German broadcaster and secretary (d. 2017) Zenkō Suzuki, 44th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 2004) January 13 – Joh Bjelke-Petersen, 31st Premier of Queensland (d. 2005) January 15 January 16 – Eduardo Frei Montalva, Chilean politician, 29th President of Chile (d. 1982) January 17 John S. McCain Jr., American admiral (d. 1981) George Stigler, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1991) January 18 José María Arguedas, Peruvian novelist, poet, and anthropologist (d. 1969) Danny Kaye, American actor, comedian (d. 1987) January 19 Ken Nelson, American record producer, music executive (d. 2008) Choor Singh, Singaporean judge (d. 2009) January 20 – Wendell J. Westcott, American carillonneur (d. 2010) January 22 Mary Hayley Bell, English dramatist (d. 2005) Bruno Kreisky, Chancellor of Austria (d. 1990) January 24 – C. L. Moore, American writer (d. 1987) January 25 – Kurt Maetzig, German director (d. 2012) January 26 – Polykarp Kusch, German-born physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1993) January 28 – Johan van Hulst, Dutch politician, academic, author, and Yad Vashem recipient (d. 2018) January 29 – Peter von Siemens, German industrialist (d. 1986) January 30 Roy Eldridge, American jazz musician (d. 1989) Hugh Marlowe, American film, television, stage and radio actor (d. 1982) January 31 Eddie Byrne, Irish actor (d. 1981) Baba Vanga, blind Bulgarian mystic, clairvoyant, and herbalist (d. 1996) February Ronald Reagan Jean Muir Merle Oberon February 5 – Jussi Björling, Swedish tenor (d. 1960) February 6 – Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States (d. 2004) February 8 – Elizabeth Bishop, American poet (d. 1979) February 10 – Victor Guillermo Ramos Rangel, Venezuelan classical musician (d. 1986) February 12 Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh (Carroll Daly), 5th President of Ireland (d. 1978) Stephen H. Sholes, American recording executive (d. 1968) February 13 Jean Muir, American actress (d. 1996) Paul Stader, American actor, stuntman (d. 1991) February 14 Willem Johan Kolff, Dutch inventor(d. 2009) Eduardo Serrano, Venezuelan musician, composer (d. 2008) February 15 – Glanville Williams, English criminal law professor, QC (d. 1997) February 17 Oskar Seidlin, Silesian-born Jewish-American literary scholar (d. 1984) Orrin Tucker, American bandleader, composer (d. 2011) February 19 Bill Bowerman, American track athlete, co-founder of Nike, Inc. (d. 1999) Merle Oberon, British actress (d. 1979) February 24 Helen Marnie Seaton Neas, American centenarian (d. 2014) Louise Weezie Kaderly, American centenarian (d. 2013) Eduardo Vañó Pastor, Spanish cartoonist (d. 1993) February 26 – Mien Schopman-Klaver, Dutch athlete (d. 2018) February 27 Fanny Edelman, Argentine politician (d. 2011) Egon Sundberg, Swedish football player (d. 2015) February 28 – Otakar Vávra, Czech director (d. 2011) March Jean Harlow Wolfgang Larrazábal Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Alfonso García Robles Jack Ruby Tennessee Williams March 1 – Mike Gilbert, New Zealand rugby union player (d. 2002) March 3 – Jean Harlow, American actress (d. 1937) March 5 – Wolfgang Larrazábal, 52nd President of Venezuela (d. 2003) March 6 – Nikolai Baibakov, Soviet statesman (d. 2008) March 8 – Alan Hovhaness, American composer (d. 2000) March 9 – Ebby Halliday, American realtor (d. 2015) March 12 – Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, 49th President of Mexico (d. 1979) March 13 L. Ron Hubbard, American author, founder of Scientology (d. 1986) Marie Rudisill, American author (d. 2006) March 15 – Ursula Vaughan Williams, British author (d. 2007) March 16 Pierre Harmel, 40th Prime Minister of Belgium (d. 2009) Josef Mengele, German Nazi war criminal (d. 1979) March 18 – Al Benton, American baseball player (d. 1968) March 20 – Alfonso García Robles, Mexican diplomat and politician, Nobel Peace Prize laureate (d. 1991) March 24 Joseph Barbera, American cartoonist (d. 2006) Jane Drew, English architect (d. 1996) Ephraim Engleman, American rheumatologist (d. 2015) March 25 – Jack Ruby, American mobster, killer of Lee Harvey Oswald (d. 1967) March 26 Bernard Katz, German-born biophysicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003) Tennessee Williams, American playwright (d. 1983) March 27 – Erich Heller, British philosopher (d. 1990) March 29 – Brigitte Horney, German-born actress (d. 1988) March 31 Freddie Green, American jazz musician (d. 1987) Elisabeth Grümmer, German soprano (d. 1986) April Hedi Amara Nouira Feodor Lynen Melvin Calvin Józef Cyrankiewicz April 1 – Fauja Singh, English centenarian marathon runner April 3 Stanisława Walasiewicz, Polish-born athlete (d. 1980) Michael Woodruff, British/Australian surgeon (d. 2001) April 5 – Hedi Amara Nouira, Tunisian politician, 11th Prime Minister of Tunisia (d. 1993) April 6 – Feodor Lynen, German biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1979) April 8 Melvin Calvin, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1997) Emil Cioran, Romanian philosopher, essayist (d. 1995) Ichirō Fujiyama, Japanese composer, singer (d. 1993) April 13 – Donald Leslie, American creator of the Leslie speaker (d. 2004) April 15 – Muhammad Metwally El-Shaarawy, Egyptian jurist (d. 1998) April 17 – Lester Rodney, American journalist (d. 2009) April 18 Maurice Goldhaber, Austrian-American physicist (d. 2011) Huntington Hartford, American businessman (d. 2008) April 23 Józef Cyrankiewicz, Polish communist politician, 2-time Prime Minister of Poland (d. 1989) Ronald Neame, British film cinematographer, producer, screenwriter, and director (d. 2010) April 26 – Paul Verner, German politician (d. 1986) April 28 – Lee Falk, American writer, theater director, and producer (d. 1999) Luigi Ferrando, Italian racing cyclist (d. 2003) May Maureen O'Sullivan Hubert Humphrey Vincent Price Maurice Allais May 5 – Andor Lilienthal, Hungarian chess Grandmaster (d. 2010) May 6 – Frank Nelson, American actor (d. 1986) May 7 – Ishirō Honda, Japanese film director (d. 1993) May 8 – Robert Johnson, American guitarist, singer (d. 1938) May 10 – Bel Kaufman, German-born American author (d. 2014) May 11 Phil Silvers, American actor, comedian (d. 1985) Doodles Weaver, American actor, comedian (d. 1983) May 12 – Dorothy Rungeling, Canadian aviator (d. 2018) May 15 – Max Frisch, Swiss author (d. 1991) May 17 Lisa Fonssagrives, Swedish model (d. 1992) André Jaunet, French-born flutist (d. 1988) Maureen O'Sullivan, Irish actress (d. 1998) May 18 – Big Joe Turner, African-American singer (d. 1985) May 20 Gardner Fox, American writer (d. 1986) Milt Gabler, American record producer (d. 2001) May 22 – Anatol Rapoport, Russian-born American mathematical psychologist (d. 2007) May 24 Carleen Hutchins, American violin maker (d. 2009) Barbara West, second-to-last living survivor of the Titanic sinking (d. 2007) May 25 – Eric P. Newman, American numismatist (d. 2017) May 27 Hubert Humphrey, American politician, 38th Vice President of the United States (d. 1978) Teddy Kollek, Austrian-born Israeli politician, mayor of Jerusalem (d. 2007) Vincent Price, American actor (d. 1993) May 28 – Fritz Hochwälder, Austrian author (d. 1986) May 31 – Maurice Allais, French economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2010) June Luis Walter Alvarez Ben Alexander Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld June 3 – Ellen Corby, American actress (d. 1999) June 4 – Milovan Đilas, Yugoslavian Marxist (d. 1995) June 5 – Neel E. Kearby, American fighter ace (d. 1944) June 13 Luis Alvarez, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1988) Prince Aly Khan, Indian-born Pakistani imam of Ismaili Shi'a Islam (d. 1960) June 15 – Wilbert Awdry, English children's writer (d. 1997) June 19 – Dudley Senanayake, 2nd Prime Minister of Sri Lanka (d. 1973) June 20 – Paul Pietsch, German racer, magazine magnate (d. 2012) June 21 Irving Fein, American television, film producer (d. 2012) Wonderful Smith, African-American comedian (d. 2008) June 22 – Vernon Kirby, South African tennis player (d. 1994) June 23 Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov, Russian aeronautical engineer (d. 1995) David Ogilvy, British advertising executive (d. 1999) June 24 Juan Manuel Fangio, Argentine race car driver (d. 1995) Norman Lessing, American television screenwriter, producer, playwright, chess master, and chess writer (d. 2001) Ernesto Sabato, Argentine writer (d. 2011) June 25 – William Howard Stein, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1980) June 26 Toyo Shibata, Japanese poet (d. 2013) Babe Didrikson Zaharias, American athlete, golfer (d. 1956) June 27 Ben Alexander, American actor (d. 1969) Marion M. Magruder, American officer (d. 1997) June 29 Bernard Herrmann, American composer (d. 1975) Lucien Lauk, French racing cyclist (d. 2001) Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, German-born Prince Consort of the Netherlands (1948–1980) (d. 2004) June 30 Czesław Miłosz, Polish-born writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2004) Nagarjun, Indian poet (d. 1998) July Georges Pompidou Gian Carlo Menotti Ginger Rogers Lionel Ferbos José María Lemus July 1 Guy Raymond, American actor (d. 1997) Sergei Sokolov, Marshal of the Soviet Union (d. 2012) July 2 – Dorothy M. Horstmann, American epidemiologist, virologist and pediatrician (d. 2001) July 3 – Ed Clark, American photographer (d. 2000) July 4 Mitch Miller, American singer, television personality (d. 2010) Frederick Seitz, American scientist (d. 2008) July 5 Giorgio Borġ Olivier, 7th Prime Minister of Malta (d. 1980) Georges Pompidou, President of France (d. 1974) July 6 LaVerne Andrews, American singer (d. 1967) Annibale Frossi, Italian football player, manager (d. 1999) June Gale, American actress (d. 1996) July 7 Hubert de Bèsche, Swedish fencer (d. 1997) Gretchen Franklin, English actress, dancer (d. 2005) Shunpei Hashioka, Japanese-Chinese boxer Gian Carlo Menotti, Italian-born American composer (d. 2007) Red Nonnenkamp, American Major League Baseball outfielder (d. 2000) Joan Perry, American film actress, model, and singer (d. 1996) July 8 – Vincente Gomez, Spanish guitarist, composer (d. 2001) July 9 Mervyn Peake, British writer, illustrator (d. 1968) Svetislav Valjarević, Serbian Yugoslav international football player (d. 1996) John Archibald Wheeler, American physicist (d. 2008) July 10 Amalia Solórzano, First Lady of Mexico (d. 2008) Bruno Vale, Italian football player July 11 – Erna Flegel, German nurse (d. 2006) July 14 – William Norris, American business executive (d. 2006) July 15 Max Seela, German lieutenant colonel in the Waffen-SS (d. 1999) Hans von Luck, German Nazi Wehrmacht officer (d. 1997) Paul Zoll, American cardiologist (d. 1999) July 16 Rafael Aragón Cabrera [es], Argentine soccer leader Ginger Rogers, American actress, dancer (d. 1995) Gabriele Wülker, German social scientist, civil servant (d. 2001) July 17 Lionel Ferbos, American jazz trumpeter (d. 2014) Yang Jiang, Chinese playwright, author, and translator (d. 2016) July 18 Henriette Bie Lorentzen, Norwegian humanist, peace activist, feminist, co-founder of the Nansen Academy, resistance member and concentration camp survivor (d. 2001) Hume Cronyn, Canadian actor (d. 2003) Arch MacDonald, American broadcast journalist, television pioneer (d. 1985) July 19 – Ben Eastman, American middle distance runner (d. 2002) July 21 – Marshall McLuhan, Canadian author (d. 1980) July 22 – José María Lemus, 33rd President of El Salvador (d. 1993) July 26 – Jerry Burke, American musician (d. 1965) July 28 – Ann Doran, American actress (d. 2000) July 29 – Ján Cikker, Slovak composer (d. 1989) July 31 – George Liberace, American musician (d. 1983) August Lucille Ball Cantinflas Mikhail Botvinnik Betty Robinson August 2 – Rusty Wescoatt, American actor (d. 1987) August 3 – Manuel Esperón, Mexican musician, composer (d. 2011) August 5 – Robert Taylor, American actor (d. 1969) August 6 Lucille Ball, American actress, television producer and co-owner of Desilu Productions (d. 1989) Constance Fecher Heaven, British romance writer (d. 1995) August 7 – Nicholas Ray, American director (d. 1979) August 8 – Rosetta LeNoire, American actress (d. 2002) August 9 – William Alfred Fowler, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1995) August 10 Leonidas Andrianopoulos, Greek footballer (d. 2011) A. N. Sherwin-White, English historian (d. 1993) August 11 William H. Avery, American politician (d. 2009) Thanom Kittikachorn, 10th Prime Minister of Thailand (d. 2004) August 12 – Cantinflas, Mexican actor (d. 1993) August 13 – Roy Pinney, American herpetologist, photographer, war correspondent and writer (d. 2010) August 14 – Vethathiri Maharishi, spiritual leader, founder of the World Community Service Center (WCSC) (d. 2006) August 15 – Anthony Salerno, American gangster (d. 1992) August 17 Mikhail Botvinnik, Russian chess player (d. 1995) Martin Sandberger, German military officer (d. 2010) August 18 – Amelia Boynton Robinson, African-American civil rights activist (d. 2015) August 23 Betty Robinson, American Olympic athlete (d. 1999) Birger Ruud, Norwegian athlete (d. 1998) August 25 – Võ Nguyên Giáp, General of the Vietnam People's Army (d. 2013) August 26 – Deva Dassy, French opera singer (d. 2016) August 29 – John Charnley, English orthopaedic surgeon, pioneer of hip replacement operation (d. 1982) August 31 – Ramón Vinay, Chilean operatic tenor (d. 1996) September Todor Zhivkov John Gorton Konstantin Chernenko Eric Williams September 2 – Floyd Council, American musician (d. 1976) September 6 – Harry Danning, American baseball player (d. 2004) September 7 – Todor Zhivkov, 36th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (d. 1998) September 8 – Byron Morrow, American actor (d. 2006) September 9 – John Gorton, 19th Prime Minister of Australia (d. 2002) September 10 Nelly Omar, Argentine actress and singer (d. 2013) Renée Simonot, French actress, mother of Catherine Deneuve September 13 – Bill Monroe, American musician (d. 1996) September 15 – Joseph Pevney, American director (d. 2008) September 19 – William Golding, English writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1993) September 20 – Shriram Sharma Acharya, Indian religious leader (d. 1990) September 23 – Frank Moss, American politician (d. 2003) September 24 Konstantin Chernenko, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (d. 1985) Ed Kretz, American motorcycle racer (d. 1996) September 25 – Eric Williams, 1st Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago (d. 1981) September 27 – John Harvey, American actor (d. 1982) September 29 – Charles Court, Australian politician (d. 2007) September 30 Bernd von Brauchitsch, German air force officer (d. 1974) Ruth Gruber, American journalist and writer (d. 2016) October Joe Rosenthal October 3 – Edgar Sanabria, Venezuelan lawyer, diplomat, and politician, Interim President of Venezuela (d. 1989) October 5 Pierre Dansereau, Canadian ecologist (d. 2011) Brian O'Nolan, Irish humorist (d. 1966) October 9 – Joe Rosenthal, American photographer (d. 2006) October 10 – Clare Hollingworth, English journalist (d. 2017) October 12 – Vijay Merchant, Indian cricketer (d. 1987) October 13 Tadeusz Chyliński, Polish designer and constructor (d. 1978) Ashok Kumar, Indian actor (d. 2001) October 14 – Lê Đức Thọ, Vietnamese general and politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1990) October 15 – James H. Schmitz, German-born American science fiction writer (d. 1981) October 21 Dick Harris, Australian rules footballer (d. 1993) William A. Mitchell, American food chemist, inventor (d. 2004) October 26 Sid Gillman, American football coach (d. 2003) Mahalia Jackson, African-American gospel singer (d. 1972) October 27 – Leif Erickson, American actor (d. 1986) October 30 Ruth Hussey, American actress (d. 2005) Eileen Whelan, British cricketer November Odysseas Elytis Roy Rogers Buck O'Neil November 1 Henri Troyat, French writer (d. 2007) Sidney Wood, American tennis player (d. 2009) November 2 – Odysseas Elytis, Greek writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1996) November 5 – Roy Rogers, American singer, actor (d. 1998) November 7 Yolande Beekman, French-born World War II heroine (d. 1944) Ángeles Santos Torroella, Spanish painter (d. 2013) November 9 – Eugene M. Zuckert, United States Secretary of the Air Force (1961–1965) (d. 2000) November 12 Yehoshua Rabinovitz, Israeli politician (d. 1979) Chad Varah, British priest and humanitarian (d. 2007) November 13 – Buck O'Neil, American baseball player, manager (d. 2006) November 15 – Kay Walsh, British actress (d. 2005) November 22 Florence Davies, English supercentenarian (d. 2015) Glenys Thomas, English supercentenarian (d. 2015) November 24 – Erik Bergman, Finnish composer (d. 2006) November 25 – Roelof Frankot, Dutch painter (d. 1984) November 26 – Robert Marchand, French cyclist November 27 David Merrick, American theater producer (d. 2000) Fe del Mundo, Filipino pediatrician (d. 2011) November 28 – Václav Renč, Czech poet, dramatist, and translator (d. 1973) November 30 – Jorge Negrete, Mexican singer, actor (d. 1953) December Broderick Crawford Boun Oum Hans von Ohain Jeanette Nolan December 1 – Walter Alston, American baseball player, manager (d. 1984) December 2 – Robert Paige, American actor (d. 1987) December 3 – Nino Rota, Italian composer (d. 1979) December 5 – Władysław Szpilman, Polish pianist, memoirist (d. 2000) December 8 – Lee J. Cobb, American actor (d. 1976) December 9 – Broderick Crawford, American actor (d. 1986) December 10 – Chet Huntley, American television reporter (d. 1974) December 11 Val Guest, British film director (d. 2006) Naguib Mahfouz, Egyptian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2006) Qian Xuesen, Chinese scientist (d. 2009) December 12 – Boun Oum, 2-time Prime Minister of Laos (d. 1980) December 13 Trygve Haavelmo, Norwegian economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1999) Kenneth Patchen, American poet and painter (d. 1972) December 14 Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz, Greek-Polish athlete, Resistance member (d. 1943) Spike Jones, American musician (d. 1965) Hans von Ohain, German physicist, designer of the first operational jet engine (d. 1998) December 15 – Stan Kenton, American jazz pianist, composer, and arranger (d. 1979) December 17 – André Claveau, French singer, Eurovision Song Contest 1958 winner (d. 2003) December 18 – Jules Dassin, American director (d. 2008) December 20 – Hortense Calisher, American author (d. 2009) December 21 – Josh Gibson, African-American baseball player (d. 1947) December 23 James Gregory, American actor (d. 2002) Niels Kaj Jerne, English-born immunologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1994) December 25 – Louise Bourgeois, French-born American artist (d. 2010) December 26 Steve Kordek, American pinball innovator (d. 2012) Kikuko, Princess Takamatsu of Japan (d. 2004) December 27 – Anna Russell, British comedian and singer (d. 2006) December 28 – Sam Levenson, American humorist and author (d. 1980) December 29 William J. Ely, American army officer (d. 2017) Klaus Fuchs, German theoretical physicist, spy (d. 1988) December 30 – Jeanette Nolan, American actress (d. 1998) Date unknown İsmail Rüştü Aksal, Turkish civil servant, politician (d. 1989) Deaths January Marcelina Darowska Francis Galton January 1 – John I. Curtin, American general (b. 1837) January 3 'Abd al-Ahad Khan, Emir of Bukhara (b. 1859) Alexandros Papadiamantis, Greek poet (b. 1851) January 4 Stefano Bruzzi, Italian painter (b. 1835) Francesco Segna, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1836) January 5 Walter Beatty, Canadian political figure (b. 1836) Marcelina Darowska, Polish Roman Catholic nun, saint (b. 1827) January 6 – Sir John Aird, 1st Baronet, English civil engineer (b. 1833) January 8 – Pietro Gori, Italian lawyer, journalist and poet (b. 1865) January 13 – Władysław Czachórski, Polish painter (b. 1850) January 15 – Carolina Coronado, Spanish poet (b. 1820) January 16 – Wilhelm Burger, German composer, pianist and conductor (b. 1861) January 17 – Sir Francis Galton, British explorer, biologist (b. 1822) January 23 – Edmund Beswick, English rugby football player (b. 1858) February Giuditta Vannini Alice Morse Earle February 1 – Charles Stillman Sperry, American admiral (b. 1847) February 2 – Archduke Johann Salvator of Austria (b. 1852) February 4 – Piet Cronjé, Boer general (b. 1836) February 8 – Joaquín Costa, Spanish politician, lawyer, economist and historian (b. 1846) February 10 – Gustavo Maria Bruni, Italian childhood Roman Catholic servant of God (b. 1903) February 14 – David Boyle, Canadian archaeologist (b. 1842) February 15 Theodor Escherich, German-born Austrian pediatrician (b. 1857) Pavel Grigorievich Dukmasov, Russian general (b. 1838) February 16 – Alice Morse Earle, American historian (b. 1851) February 18 – Buttons Briggs, American baseball player (b. 1875) February 21 – Isidre Nonell, Spanish painter (b. 1873) February 23 Richard Henry Beddome, British military officer, naturalist (b. 1830) Giuditta Vannini, Italian Roman Catholic religious professed, blessed (b. 1859) February 25 – Fritz von Uhde, German painter (b. 1848) March Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff William Collins Dragan Tsankov March 1 – Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Dutch chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1852) March 6 Mary Anne Barker, English author (b. 1831) Thierry, Count of Limburg Stirum (b. 1827) March 10 – Amelia Edith Huddleston Barr, American novelist (b. 1831) March 11 – Théotime Blanchard, Canadian farmer, teacher, merchant and politician (b. 1844) March 17 – Friedrich Haase, German actor (b. 1827) March 18 Richard Baker, Australian politician (b. 1842) Anna Brackett, American feminist, educator (b. 1836) March 22 – William Collins, British Anglican bishop (b. 1867) March 24 Rodolphe-Madeleine Cleophas Dareste de La Chavanne, French jurist (b. 1824) Dragan Tsankov, Bulgarian politician, 3rd Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1828) March 27 – Margarita Savitskaya, Russian actress (b. 1868) March 28 – Samuel Franklin Emmons, American geologist (b. 1841) March 30 – Pellegrino Artusi, Italian businessman (b. 1820) April Georg, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe April 9 – Manuel Aguirre de Tejada, Spanish politician, lawyer (b. 1827) April 10 – Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis, Lithuanian artist, composer (b. 1875) April 12 – James Mathers, Irish missionary (b. 1854) April 14 Addie Joss, American baseball player, Major League Baseball Hall of Fame member (b. 1880) Denman Thompson, American actor, playwright (b. 1833) April 25 – Emilio Salgari, Italian writer (b. 1862) April 26 – Pedro Paterno, Filipino politician (b. 1857) April 29 – Georg, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe (b. 1846) May Gustav Mahler William Ridley May 6 – Robert Alden, American author (b. 1836) May 9 – Thomas Wentworth Higginson, American Unitarian minister and abolitionist (b. 1823) May 16 – Gheorghe Manu, 17th Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1833) May 18 – Gustav Mahler, Austrian composer (b. 1860) May 21 – Williamina Fleming, Scottish astronomer (b. 1857) May 23 – John Douglas, English architect (b. 1830) May 24 – Dezső Bánffy, 12th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1843) May 25 Vasily Klyuchevsky, Russian historian (b. 1841) William Ridley, British missionary (b. 1836) May 27 – Thursday October Christian II, Pitcairn Islands leader (b. 1820) May 29 Benjamin Broomhall, British advocate (b. 1829) Daniel W. Burke, American soldier (b. 1841) Stephanus Jacobus du Toit, South African nationalist, theologian, journalist and politician (b. 1847) W. S. Gilbert, English dramatist (b. 1836) June Maurice Rouvier June 1 – Claudio Brindis de Salas Garrido, Cuban violinist (b. 1852) June 2 – Axel Olof Freudenthal, Finnish philologist, politician (b. 1836) June 5 – Édouard Bague, French aviator (b. 1879) June 7 William Gordon, British Roman Catholic prelate (b. 1831) Maurice Rouvier, French statesman, Prime Minister of France (b. 1842) June 9 – Carrie Nation, American temperance activist (b. 1846) June 16 – Joshua H. Berkey, American publisher, minister and political activist (b. 1852) June 20 – Ghazaros Aghayan, Armenian writer, educator, folklorist, historian, linguist and public figure (b. 1840) June 23 – Cecrope Barilli, Italian painter (b. 1839) June 25 – Princess Maria Clotilde of Savoy (b. 1843) June 26 – Lucy Hughes Brown, American physician (b. 1863) July José Dias Correia de Carvalho Caleb Cook Baldwin Carmen Salles y Barangueras July 2 José Dias Correia de Carvalho, Portuguese Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1830) Mary M. Cohen, American social economist (b. 1854) Clement A. Evans, American Confederate general (b. 1833) July 5 – Maria Pia of Savoy, Queen consort of Portugal (b. 1847) July 6 – Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg (b. 1830) July 8 – Henry Perrine Baldwin, American businessman (b. 1842) July 11 – Laura Jacinta Rittenhouse, American temperance activist and juvenile literature author (b. 1841) July 14 – Ignaz von Peczely, Hungarian scientist, physician and homeopath (b. 1826) July 15 Carlo Ademollo, Italian painter (b. 1824) Louisa Cavendish, duch*ess of Devonshire (b. 1832) July 16 – August Harambašić, Croatian writer (b. 1861) July 17 – Rufino José Cuervo, Colombian linguist, philologist and writer (b. 1844) July 19 – Manuel Iradier, Spanish explorer and Africanist (b. 1854) July 20 – Caleb Cook Baldwin, American Presbyterian missionary (b. 1820) July 25 Edmund Bogdanowicz, Polish poet, writer and journalist (b. 1857) Filippo Capocci, Italian organist and composer (b. 1840) Carmen Salles y Barangueras, Spanish Roman Catholic religious professed and saint (b. 1848) July 26 – José Alves de Cerqueira César, Brazilian politician (b. 1835) August August 1 Edwin Austin Abbey, American painter (b. 1852) Samuel Arza Davenport, American politician (b. 1843) Konrad Duden, German philologist (b. 1829) August 3 – Reinhold Begas, German sculptor (b. 1831) August 6 – Florentino Ameghino, Argentine naturalist, paleontologist, anthropologist and zoologist (b. 1853) August 7 Elizabeth Akers Allen, American poet and journalist (b. 1832) José Rafael Balmaceda, Chilean politician, diplomat (b. 1850) August 8 – William P. Frye, American Senator (b. 1830) August 11 – Isabela de Rosis, Italian Roman Catholic religious sister, servant of God and Venerable (b. 1842) August 12 – Jules Brunet, French military leader (b. 1838) August 15 – William R. Badger, American pioneer aviator (b. 1886) August 16 Patrick Francis Moran, Australian cardinal, Archbishop of Sydney (b. 1830) Teodora Alonso Realonda, mother of Filipino patriot José Rizal, national hero (b. 1827) August 17 – Petro Nini Luarasi, Albanian activist (b. 1854) August 29 – Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI of Hyderabad (b. 1886) September Edward Whymper September 4 – John Francon Williams, Welsh-born journalist, writer, geographer, historian, cartographer and inventor. (b. 1854) September 7 – Friedrich Breitfuss, Russian philatelist (b. 1851) September 11 – Frank Charles Bunnell, American politician, Congressman from Pennsylvania (b. 1842) September 12 – William Alexander, Irish Anglican bishop, Primate of All Ireland (b. 1824) September 15 – Joel Benton, American writer, poet and lecturer (b. 1832) September 16 – Edward Whymper, British explorer, mountaineer (b. 1840) September 18 – Pyotr Stolypin, 3rd Prime Minister of Russia (assassinated) (b. 1862) September 20 – Sir Robert Hart, 1st Baronet, British diplomat (b. 1835) September 23 – John Arthur Barry, British-born Australian journalist, author (b. 1850) September 25 – Emma Helen Blair, American journalist, editor (b. 1851) September 29 – Henry Northcote, 1st Baron Northcote, 3rd Governor-General of Australia (b. 1846) September 30 – Sir Herbert Risley, British ethnographer and colonial administrator (b. 1851) October Carolina Beatriz Ângelo Antonio Borrero Henry Broadhurst Miguel Malvar José López Domínguez Arthur Lloyd October – Blanche Atkinson, British novelist (b. 1847) October 1 – Wilhelm Dilthey, German psychologist, sociologist and philosopher (b. 1833) October 2 – Winfield Scott Schley, American admiral (b. 1839) October 3 – Carolina Beatriz Ângelo, Portuguese physician (b. 1878) October 5 – William Astley, Australian writer (b. 1855) October 7 John Hughlings Jackson, English neurologist (b. 1835) Elmer McCurdy, American outlaw (b. 1880) October 8 – Lee Batchelor, Australian politician (b. 1865) October 9 Cornelius Newton Bliss, American merchant, politician and collector (b. 1833) Antonio Borrero, 10th President of Ecuador (b. 1827) October 11 Dimitar Agura, Bulgarian historian (b. 1849) Henry Broadhurst, British trade unionist, politician (b. 1840) Elena Arellano Chamorro, Nicaraguan pioneer educator (b. 1836) October 13 – Miguel Malvar, Filipino general (b. 1865) October 14 – John Marshall Harlan, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (b. 1833) October 17 – José López Domínguez, Spanish military officer, politician and 24th Prime Minister of Spain (b. 1829) October 18 – Alfred Binet, French psychologist (b. 1857) October 19 – Eugene Ely, American aviation pioneer (b. 1886) October 24 – Ida Lewis, American lighthouse keeper (b. 1842) October 27 – Arthur Lloyd, British Anglican missionary (b. 1852) October 28 – Clement V. Rogers, Cherokee politician, father of Will Rogers (b. 1839) October 29 – Joseph Pulitzer, Hungarian-born newspaper publisher, journalist (b. 1847) October 30 – Elizabeth Herbert, Baroness Herbert of Lea, English Catholic writer, translator, philanthropist, and social figure (b. 1822) October 31 – John Joseph Montgomery, American glider pioneer (b. 1858) November Christian Lundeberg Ramón Cáceres November 2 – Kyrle Bellew, English actor (b. 1850) November 3 – George Chrystal, British mathematician (b. 1851) November 7 Constantin Budisteanu, Romanian soldier, politician (b. 1838) Nathaniel Bull, Australian politician (b. 1842) November 8 – Oscar Bielaski, American baseball player (b. 1847) November 9 – Howard Pyle, American artist and fiction writer (b. 1853) November 10 – Christian Lundeberg, Swedish politician, 10th Prime Minister of Sweden (b. 1842) November 11 – Josef Roman Lorenz, Austrian naturalist (b. 1825) November 14 – Francis Buxton, British barrister, and politician (b. 1847) November 19 Billy Beaumont, English football player (b. 1883) Ramón Cáceres, 31st President of the Dominican Republic (b. 1866) November 20 – Sophia Frances Anne Caulfeild, British needlework artist (b. 1824) November 22 William George Aston, British consular official (b. 1841) John Sanford Barnes, American businessman (b. 1836) November 23 James George Bell, American businessman, settler (b. 1831) Catalina Berroa, Cuban pianist, teacher and composer (b. 1849) Bernard Tancred, South African cricketer (b. 1865) November 25 – Paul Lafargue, French Marxist theorist, activist (b. 1842) November 26 – Komura Jutarō, Japanese statesman (b. 1855) November 28 – Preston Jacobus, American developer, businessman and politician (b. 1864) November 29 – Stanley Calvert Clarke, British army officer, courtier December Vassily Maximov Blessed Bernard Mary of Jesus Emilio Estrada Carmona December 1 – Vassily Maximov, Russian painter (b. 1844) December 2 George Davidson, English-born American geodesist, astronomer, geographer, surveyor, and engineer (b. 1825) Eugène Alphonse Dyer, Canadian merchant, farmer and political figure (b. 1838) December 7 – Robert Maitland Brereton, English railway engineer (b. 1834) December 9 – Bernard Mary of Jesus, Italian Roman Catholic priest, blessed (b. 1831) December 10 – Sir Joseph Hooker, English botanist (b. 1817) December 11 – Thomas Ball, American sculptor, musician (b. 1819) December 13 – Nikolay Beketov, Russian chemist (b. 1827) December 19 – John Bigelow, American lawyer, statesman (b. 1817) December 20 – Rose Eytinge, American actress (b. 1835) December 21 Catharine Hitchco*ck Tilden Avery, American author and editor (b. 1844) Emilio Estrada Carmona, 18th President of Ecuador (b. 1855) December 22 Mary Jane Coggeshall, American suffragist (b. 1836) Odilon Lannelongue, French surgeon (b. 1840) December 24 – Hyacinth Gulski, American Roman Catholic priest (b. 1847) December 25 – Arthur F. Griffith, American calculating prodigy (b. 1880) Date unknown Lucinda Banister Chandler, American leader in the social purity movement (b. 1828) Louise Markscheffel, American literary and society editor (b. 1857) Nobel Prizes Nobel medal.png Physics – Wilhelm Wien Chemistry – Maria Skłodowska-Curie Medicine – Allvar Gullstrand Literature – Count Maurice (Mooris) Polidore Marie Bernhard Maeterlinck Peace – Tobias Asser Alfred Hermann Fried References "Grand Central Palace Automobile Show has Auspicious Opening". The New York Times. January 1, 1911. p. 34. "A Successful Negro Aviator: Charles Ward Chappelle Invents an Aeroplane Which Attracts Attention". Savannah Tribune. Savannah, Georgia. February 11, 1911. p. 1. "Thousands Dead Or Hurt In Earthquake". Pittsburgh Press. January 5, 1911. p. 1. Kappa Alpha Psi Centennial. "Record of Current Events". The American Monthly Review of Reviews: 287–290. March 1911. Ashabranner, Brent; Jennifer (2001). No Better Hope: What the Lincoln Memorial Means to America. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 29. Kaplan, Temma (Spring 1985). "On the Socialist Origins of International Women's Day". Feminist Studies. 11 (1). van Delft, D.; Kes, P. (September 2010). "The discovery of superconductivity". Physics Today: 38–43. doi:10.1063/1.3490499. Holland, D.F. (1971). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways. 1: 1859–1910 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 80–83. ISBN 978-0-7153-5382-0. The South African Railways – Historical Survey. Editor George Hart, Publisher Bill Hart, Sponsored by Dorbyl Ltd., Published c. 1978, p. 24. Football Dynamo: Modern Russia and the People's Game ISBN 978-0-753-51571-6 p. 50 This is a featured article. Click here for more information. Page semi-protected Antarctica From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the continent. For other uses, see Antarctica (disambiguation). Antarctica This map uses an orthographic projection, near-polar aspect. The South Pole is near the center, where longitudinal lines converge. Area 14,200,000 km2 (5,500,000 sq mi)[1] Population 1,106 Population density 0.00008/km2 (0.0002/sq mi) Demonym Antarctic Countries 0 Internet TLD .aq Largest cities Research stations in Antarctica UN M.49 code 010 – Antarctica 001 – World Antarctica (UK: /ænˈtɑːrktɪkə/ or /ænˈtɑːrtɪkə/, US: /æntˈɑːrktɪkə/ (About this soundlisten))[note 1] is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres (5,500,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of Australia. At 0.00008 people per square kilometre, it is by far the least densely populated continent. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness,[5] which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents.[6] Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of 20 cm (7.9 in) along the coast and far less inland.[7] The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) (or even −94.7 °C (−135.8 °F) as measured from space[8]), though the average for the third quarter (the coldest part of the year) is −63 °C (−81 °F). Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, bacteria, fungi, plants, protista, and certain animals, such as mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades. Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of easily accessible resources, and isolation. In 1895, the first confirmed landing was conducted by a team of Norwegians. Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, and thirty-eight have signed it since then. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations. Contents 1 Etymology 2 Change of name 3 History of exploration 4 Geography 5 Geology 5.1 Geological history and palaeontology 5.1.1 Palaeozoic era (540–250 Ma) 5.1.2 Mesozoic era (250–66 Ma) 5.1.3 Gondwana breakup (160–23 Ma) 5.1.4 Neogene Period (23–0.05 Ma) 5.1.5 Meyer Desert Formation biota 5.2 Present-day 6 Climate 7 Population 8 Biodiversity 8.1 Animals 8.2 Fungi 8.3 Plants 8.4 Other organisms 8.5 Conservation 9 Politics 9.1 Antarctic territories 10 Economy 11 Research 11.1 Meteorites 12 Ice mass and global sea level 13 Effects of global warming 14 Ozone depletion 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 External links Etymology Adélie penguins in Antarctica The name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική (antarktiké), feminine of ἀνταρκτικός (antarktikós),[9] meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north".[10] Aristotle wrote in his book Meteorology about an Antarctic region in c. 350 BC.[11] Marinus of Tyre reportedly used the name in his unpreserved world map from the 2nd century CE. The Roman authors Hyginus and Apuleius (1–2 centuries CE) used for the South Pole the romanised Greek name polus antarcticus,[12][13] from which derived the Old French pole antartike (modern pôle antarctique) attested in 1270, and from there the Middle English pol antartik in a 1391 technical treatise by Geoffrey Chaucer (modern Antarctic Pole).[14] Before acquiring its present geographical connotations, the term was used for other locations that could be defined as "opposite to the north". For example, the short-lived French colony established in Brazil in the 16th century was called "France Antarctique". The first formal use of the name "Antarctica" as a continental name in the 1890s is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew.[15] Change of name The long-imagined (but undiscovered) south polar continent was originally called Terra Australis, sometimes shortened to 'Australia' as seen in a woodcut illustration titled Sphere of the winds, contained in an astrological textbook published in Frankfurt in 1545.[16] Although the longer Latin phrase was better known, the shortened name Australia was used in Europe's scholarly circles. Then in the nineteenth century, the colonial authorities in Sydney removed the Dutch name from New Holland. Instead of inventing a new name to replace it, they took the name Australia from the south polar continent, leaving it nameless for some eighty years. During that period, geographers had to make do with clumsy phrases such as "the Antarctic Continent". They searched for a more poetic replacement, suggesting various names such as Ultima and Antipodea.[17] Eventually Antarctica was adopted in the 1890s.[18] History of exploration Main article: History of Antarctica See also: List of Antarctic expeditions and Women in Antarctica Historical claims to continental Antarctica France 1840–present Adélie Land 1840–present United Kingdom 1908–present Falkland Islands Falkland Islands Dependencies 1908–1962 British Antarctic Territory 1962–present New Zealand 1923–present Ross Dependency 1923–present Australia 1933–present Australian Antarctic Territory 1933–present Norway 1939–present Queen Maud Land 1939–present Germany 1939–1945 Germany New Swabia 1939–1945 Chile 1940–present Chilean Antarctic Territory 1940–present Argentina 1943–present Argentine Antarctica 1943–present Discovery and claim of French sovereignty over Adélie Land by Jules Dumont d'Urville, in 1840. Painting of James Weddell's second expedition in 1823, depicting the brig Jane and the cutter Beaufroy Antarctica has no indigenous population, and there is no evidence that it was seen by humans until the 19th century. However, in February 1775, during his second voyage, Captain Cook called the existence of such a polar continent "probable" and in another copy of his journal he wrote:"[I] firmly believe it and it's more than probable that we have seen a part of it".[19] However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and North Africa—had prevailed since the times of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD. Even in the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. Integral to the story of the origin of Antarctica's name is that it was not named Terra Australis—this name was given to Australia instead, because of the misconception that no significant landmass could exist further south. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has been credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia. He justified the titling of his book A Voyage to Terra Australis (1814) by writing in the introduction: There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will ever be found in a more southern latitude; the name Terra Australis will, therefore, remain descriptive of the geographical importance of this country and of its situation on the globe: it has antiquity to recommend it; and, having no reference to either of the two claiming nations, appears to be less objectionable than any other which could have been selected.[20] The First Russian Antarctic Expedition 1819–1821. European maps continued to show this hypothesised land until Captain James Cook's ships, HMS Resolution and Adventure, crossed the Antarctic Circle on 17 January 1773, in December 1773 and again in January 1774.[21] Cook came within about 120 km (75 mi) of the Antarctic coast before retreating in the face of field ice in January 1773.[22] According to various organisations (the National Science Foundation,[23] NASA,[24] the University of California, San Diego,[25] the Russian State Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic,[26] among others),[27][28] ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica or its ice shelf in 1820: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Imperial Russian Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (a sealer from Stonington, Connecticut). The First Russian Antarctic Expedition led by Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on the 985-ton sloop-of-war Vostok ("East") and the 530-ton support vessel Mirny ("Peaceful") reached a point within 32 km (20 mi) of Queen Maud's Land and recorded the sight of an ice shelf at 69°21′28″S 2°14′50″W,[29] on 27 January 1820,[30] which became known as the Fimbul ice shelf. This happened three days before Bransfield sighted land and ten months before Palmer did so in November 1820. The first documented landing on Antarctica was by the American sealer John Davis, apparently at Hughes Bay, near Cape Charles, in West Antarctica on 7 February 1821, although some historians dispute this claim.[31][32] The first recorded and confirmed landing was at Cape Adair in 1895 (by the Norwegian-Swedish whaling ship Antarctic).[33] Nimrod Expedition South Pole Party (left to right): Wild, Shackleton, Marshall and Adams Roald Amundsen and his crew looking at the Norwegian flag at the South Pole, 1911 Dumont d'Urville Station, an example of modern human settlement in Antarctica On 22 January 1840, two days after the discovery of the coast west of the Balleny Islands, some members of the crew of the 1837–40 expedition of Jules Dumont d'Urville disembarked on the highest islet[34] of a group of coastal rocky islands about 4 km from Cape Géodésie on the coast of Adélie Land where they took some mineral, algae, and animal samples, erected the French flag and claimed French sovereignty over the territory.[35] In December 1839, as part of the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–42 conducted by the United States Navy (sometimes called the "Ex. Ex.", or "the Wilkes Expedition"), an expedition sailed from Sydney, Australia, into the Antarctic Ocean, as it was then known, and reported the discovery "of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny Islands" on 25 January 1840. That part of Antarctica was named "Wilkes Land", a name it retains to this day. Explorer James Clark Ross passed through what is now known as the Ross Sea and discovered Ross Island (both of which were named after him) in 1841. He sailed along a huge wall of ice that was later named the Ross Ice Shelf. Mount Erebus and Mount Terror are named after two ships from his expedition: HMS Erebus and Terror.[36] Mercator Cooper landed in East Antarctica on 26 January 1853.[37] During the Nimrod Expedition led by Ernest Shackleton in 1907, parties led by Edgeworth David became the first to climb Mount Erebus and to reach the South Magnetic Pole. Douglas Mawson, who assumed the leadership of the Magnetic Pole party on their perilous return, went on to lead several expeditions until retiring in 1931.[38] In addition, Shackleton and three other members of his expedition made several firsts in December 1908 – February 1909: they were the first humans to traverse the Ross Ice Shelf, the first to traverse the Transantarctic Mountains (via the Beardmore Glacier), and the first to set foot on the South Polar Plateau. An expedition led by Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen from the ship Fram became the first to reach the geographic South Pole on 14 December 1911, using a route from the Bay of Whales and up the Axel Heiberg Glacier.[39] One month later, the doomed Scott Expedition reached the pole. Richard E. Byrd led several voyages to the Antarctic by plane in the 1930s and 1940s. He is credited with implementing mechanised land transport on the continent and conducting extensive geological and biological research.[40] The first women to set foot on Antarctica did so in the 1930s with Caroline Mikkelsen landing on an island of Antarctica in 1935,[41] and Ingrid Christensen stepping onto the mainland in 1937.[42][43][44] In 1997 Børge Ousland became the first person to do a solo crossing. It was not until 31 October 1956, that anyone set foot on the South Pole again; on that day a U.S. Navy group led by Rear Admiral George J. Dufek successfully landed an aircraft there.[45] The first women to step onto the South Pole were Pam Young, Jean Pearson, Lois Jones, Eileen McSaveney, Kay Lindsay and Terry Tickhill in 1969.[46] The first person to sail single-handed to Antarctica was the New Zealander David Henry Lewis, in 1972, in the 10-metre steel sloop Ice Bird. On 28 November 1979, Air New Zealand Flight 901, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30, crashed into Mount Erebus, killing all 257 people on board.[47] In the southern Hemisphere Summer of 1996/97 Børge Ousland became the first human to cross Antarctica alone from coast to coast.[48] Ousland got aid from a kite on parts of the distance. All attempted crossings, with no kites or resupplies, that have tried to go from the true continental edges, where the ice meets the sea, have failed due to the great distance that needs to be covered.[49] For this crossing, Ousland also holds the record for the fastest unsupported journey to the South Pole taking just 34 days.[50] Geography Main article: Geography of Antarctica See also: Extreme points of Antarctica and List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands Labeled map of Antarctica Positioned asymmetrically around the South Pole and largely south of the Antarctic Circle, Antarctica is the southernmost continent and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean; alternatively, it may be considered to be surrounded by the southern Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, or by the southern waters of the World Ocean. There are a number of rivers and lakes in Antarctica, the longest river being the Onyx. The largest lake, Vostok, is one of the largest sub-glacial lakes in the world. Antarctica covers more than 14 million km2 (5,400,000 sq mi),[1] making it the fifth-largest continent, about 1.3 times as large as Europe. The coastline measures 17,968 km (11,165 mi)[1] and is mostly characterised by ice formations, as the following table shows: Coastal types around Antarctica[51] Type Frequency Ice shelf (floating ice front) 44% Ice walls (resting on ground) 38% Ice stream/outlet glacier (ice front or ice wall) 13% Rock 5% Total 100% Antarctica is divided in two by the Transantarctic Mountains close to the neck between the Ross Sea and the Weddell Sea. The portion west of the Weddell Sea and east of the Ross Sea is called West Antarctica and the remainder East Antarctica, because they roughly correspond to the Western and Eastern Hemispheres relative to the Greenwich meridian. Elevation coloured by relief height About 98% of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, a sheet of ice averaging at least 1.6 km (1.0 mi) thick. The continent has about 90% of the world's ice (and thereby about 70% of the world's fresh water). If all of this ice were melted, sea levels would rise about 60 m (200 ft).[52] In most of the interior of the continent, precipitation is very low, down to 20 mm (0.8 in) per year; in a few "blue ice" areas precipitation is lower than mass loss by sublimation, and so the local mass balance is negative. In the dry valleys, the same effect occurs over a rock base, leading to a desiccated landscape. West Antarctica is covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The sheet has been of recent concern because of the small possibility of its collapse. If the sheet were to break down, ocean levels would rise by several metres in a relatively geologically short period of time, perhaps a matter of centuries. Several Antarctic ice streams, which account for about 10% of the ice sheet, flow to one of the many Antarctic ice shelves: see ice-sheet dynamics. East Antarctica lies on the Indian Ocean side of the Transantarctic Mountains and comprises Coats Land, Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land, Mac. Robertson Land, Wilkes Land, and Victoria Land. All but a small portion of this region lies within the Eastern Hemisphere. East Antarctica is largely covered by the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Mount Erebus, an active volcano on Ross Island Vinson Massif, the highest peak in Antarctica at 4,892 m (16,050 ft), is located in the Ellsworth Mountains. Antarctica contains many other mountains, on both the main continent and the surrounding islands. Mount Erebus on Ross Island is the world's southernmost active volcano. Another well-known volcano is found on Deception Island, which is famous for a giant eruption in 1970. Minor eruptions are frequent, and lava flow has been observed in recent years. Other dormant volcanoes may potentially be active.[53] In 2004, a potentially active underwater volcano was found in the Antarctic Peninsula by American and Canadian researchers.[54] Antarctica is home to more than 70 lakes that lie at the base of the continental ice sheet. Lake Vostok, discovered beneath Russia's Vostok Station in 1996, is the largest of these subglacial lakes. It was once believed that the lake had been sealed off for 500,000 to one million years, but a recent survey suggests that, every so often, there are large flows of water from one lake to another.[55] There is some evidence, in the form of ice cores drilled to about 400 m (1,300 ft) above the water line, that Lake Vostok's waters may contain microbial life. The frozen surface of the lake shares similarities with Jupiter's moon, Europa. If life is discovered in Lake Vostok, it would strengthen the argument for the possibility of life on Europa.[56][57] On 7 February 2008, a NASA team embarked on a mission to Lake Untersee, searching for extremophiles in its highly alkaline waters. If found, these resilient creatures could further bolster the argument for extraterrestrial life in extremely cold, methane-rich environments.[58] In September 2018, researchers at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency released a high resolution terrain map (detail down to the size of a car, and less in some areas) of Antarctica, named the "Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica" (REMA).[59] Geology The bedrock topography of Antarctica, critical to understand dynamic motion of the continental ice sheets Main article: Geology of Antarctica Subglacial topography and bathymetry of bedrock underlying Antarctica ice sheet The above map shows the subglacial topography of Antarctica. As indicated by the scale on left-hand side, blue represents portion of Antarctica lying below sea level. The other colours indicate Antarctic bedrock lying above sea level. Each colour represents an interval of 760 m (2,500 ft) in elevation. Map is not corrected for sea level rise or isostatic rebound, which would occur if the Antarctic ice sheet completely melted to expose the bedrock surface. Topographic map of Antarctica after removing the ice sheet and accounting for both isostatic rebound and sea level rise. Hence, this map suggests what Antarctica may have looked like 35 million years ago, when the Earth was warm enough to prevent the formation of large-scale ice sheets in Antarctica. Geological history and palaeontology Skeletal reconstruction of Cryolophosaurus More than 170 million years ago, Antarctica was part of the supercontinent Gondwana. Over time, Gondwana gradually broke apart, and Antarctica as we know it today was formed around 25 million years ago. Antarctica was not always cold, dry, and covered in ice sheets. At a number of points in its long history, it was farther north, experienced a tropical or temperate climate, was covered in forests, and inhabited by various ancient life forms. Palaeozoic era (540–250 Ma) During the Cambrian period, Gondwana had a mild climate. West Antarctica was partially in the Northern Hemisphere, and during this period large amounts of sandstones, limestones and shales were deposited. East Antarctica was at the equator, where sea floor invertebrates and trilobites flourished in the tropical seas. By the start of the Devonian period (416 Ma), Gondwana was in more southern latitudes and the climate was cooler, though fossils of land plants are known from this time. Sand and silts were laid down in what is now the Ellsworth, Horlick and Pensacola Mountains. Glaciation began at the end of the Devonian period (360 Ma), as Gondwana became centred on the South Pole and the climate cooled, though flora remained. During the Permian period, the land became dominated by seed plants such as Glossopteris, a pteridosperm which grew in swamps. Over time these swamps became deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains. Towards the end of the Permian period, continued warming led to a dry, hot climate over much of Gondwana.[60] Mesozoic era (250–66 Ma) As a result of continued warming, the polar ice caps melted and much of Gondwana became a desert. In Eastern Antarctica, seed ferns or pteridosperms became abundant and large amounts of sandstone and shale were laid down at this time. Synapsids, commonly known as "mammal-like reptiles", were common in Antarctica during the Early Triassic and included forms such as Lystrosaurus. The Antarctic Peninsula began to form during the Jurassic period (206–146 Ma), and islands gradually rose out of the ocean. Ginkgo trees, conifers, bennettites, horsetails, ferns and cycads were plentiful during this period. In West Antarctica, coniferous forests dominated through the entire Cretaceous period (146–66 Ma), though southern beech became more prominent towards the end of this period. Ammonites were common in the seas around Antarctica, and dinosaurs were also present, though only three Antarctic dinosaur genera (Cryolophosaurus and Glacialisaurus, from the Hanson Formation,[61] and Antarctopelta) have been described to date.[62] It was during this era that Gondwana began to break up. However, there is some evidence of antarctic marine glaciation during the Cretaceous period.[63] Gondwana breakup (160–23 Ma) The cooling of Antarctica occurred stepwise, as the continental spread changed the oceanic currents from longitudinal equator-to-pole temperature-equalising currents to latitudinal currents that preserved and accentuated latitude temperature differences. Africa separated from Antarctica in the Jurassic, around 160 Ma, followed by the Indian subcontinent in the early Cretaceous (about 125 Ma). By the end of the Cretaceous, about 66 Ma, Antarctica (then connected to Australia) still had a subtropical climate and flora, complete with a marsupial fauna.[64] In the Eocene epoch, about 40 Ma Australia-New Guinea separated from Antarctica, so that latitudinal currents could isolate Antarctica from Australia, and the first ice began to appear. During the Eocene–Oligocene extinction event about 34 million years ago, CO2 levels have been found to be about 760 ppm[65] and had been decreasing from earlier levels in the thousands of ppm. Around 23 Ma, the Drake Passage opened between Antarctica and South America, resulting in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that completely isolated the continent. Models of the changes suggest that declining CO2 levels became more important.[66] The ice began to spread, replacing the forests that then covered the continent. Neogene Period (23–0.05 Ma) Since about 15 Ma, the continent has been mostly covered with ice.[67] Meyer Desert Formation biota Main article: Meyer Desert Formation biota Fossil Nothofa*gus leaves in the Meyer Desert Formation of the Sirius Group show that intermittent warm periods allowed Nothofa*gus shrubs to cling to the Dominion Range as late as 3–4 Ma (mid-late Pliocene).[68] After that, the Pleistocene ice age covered the whole continent and destroyed all major plant life on it.[69] Present-day Glaciers and rock outcrops in Marie Byrd Land seen from NASA's DC-8 aircraft The geological study of Antarctica has been greatly hindered by nearly all of the continent being permanently covered with a thick layer of ice.[70] However, new techniques such as remote sensing, ground-penetrating radar and satellite imagery have begun to reveal the structures beneath the ice. Geologically, West Antarctica closely resembles the Andes mountain range of South America.[60] The Antarctic Peninsula was formed by uplift and metamorphism of sea bed sediments during the late Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic eras. This sediment uplift was accompanied by igneous intrusions and volcanism. The most common rocks in West Antarctica are andesite and rhyolite volcanics formed during the Jurassic period. There is also evidence of volcanic activity, even after the ice sheet had formed, in Marie Byrd Land and Alexander Island. The only anomalous area of West Antarctica is the Ellsworth Mountains region, where the stratigraphy is more similar to East Antarctica. East Antarctica is geologically varied, dating from the Precambrian era, with some rocks formed more than 3 billion years ago. It is composed of a metamorphic and igneous platform which is the basis of the continental shield. On top of this base are coal and various modern rocks, such as sandstones, limestones and shales laid down during the Devonian and Jurassic periods to form the Transantarctic Mountains. In coastal areas such as Shackleton Range and Victoria Land some faulting has occurred. The main mineral resource known on the continent is coal.[67] It was first recorded near the Beardmore Glacier by Frank Wild on the Nimrod Expedition, and now low-grade coal is known across many parts of the Transantarctic Mountains. The Prince Charles Mountains contain significant deposits of iron ore. The most valuable resources of Antarctica lie offshore, namely the oil and natural gas fields found in the Ross Sea in 1973. Exploitation of all mineral resources is banned until 2048 by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Climate Main article: Climate of Antarctica The blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers. Near the coast, December looks fairly temperate. Antarctica is the coldest of Earth's continents. It used to be ice-free until about 34 million years ago, when it became covered with ice.[71] The coldest natural air temperature ever recorded on Earth was −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at the Russian Vostok Station in Antarctica on 21 July 1983.[72] For comparison, this is 10.7 °C (20 °F) colder than subliming dry ice at one atmosphere of partial pressure, but since CO2 only makes up 0.039% of air, temperatures of less than −140 °C (−220 °F)[73] would be needed to produce dry ice snow in Antarctica. A lower air temperature of −94.7 °C (−138.5 °F) was recorded in 2010 by satellite—however, it may be influenced by ground temperatures and was not recorded at a height of 7 feet (2 m) above the surface as required for the official air temperature records.[74] Antarctica is a frozen desert with little precipitation; the South Pole receives less than 10 cm (4 in) per year, on average. Temperatures reach a minimum of between −80 °C (−112 °F) and −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) in the interior in winter and reach a maximum of between 5 °C (41 °F) and 15 °C (59 °F) near the coast in summer. Sunburn is often a health issue as the snow surface reflects almost all of the ultraviolet light falling on it. Given the latitude, long periods of constant darkness or constant sunlight create climates unfamiliar to human beings in much of the rest of the world.[75] The snow surface at Dome C Station is typical of most of the continent's surface. East Antarctica is colder than its western counterpart because of its higher elevation. Weather fronts rarely penetrate far into the continent, leaving the centre cold and dry. Despite the lack of precipitation over the central portion of the continent, ice there lasts for extended periods. Heavy snowfalls are common on the coastal portion of the continent, where snowfalls of up to 1.22 metres (48 in) in 48 hours have been recorded. At the edge of the continent, strong katabatic winds off the polar plateau often blow at storm force. In the interior, wind speeds are typically moderate. During clear days in summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than at the equator because of the 24 hours of sunlight each day at the Pole.[1] Antarctica is colder than the Arctic for three reasons. First, much of the continent is more than 3,000 m (9,800 ft) above sea level, and temperature decreases with elevation in the troposphere. Second, the Arctic Ocean covers the north polar zone: the ocean's relative warmth is transferred through the icepack and prevents temperatures in the Arctic regions from reaching the extremes typical of the land surface of Antarctica. Third, the Earth is at aphelion in July (i.e., the Earth is farthest from the Sun in the Antarctic winter), and the Earth is at perihelion in January (i.e., the Earth is closest to the Sun in the Antarctic summer). The orbital distance contributes to a colder Antarctic winter (and a warmer Antarctic summer) but the first two effects have more impact.[76] The aurora australis, commonly known as the southern lights, is a glow observed in the night sky near the South Pole created by the plasma-full solar winds that pass by the Earth. Another unique spectacle is diamond dust, a ground-level cloud composed of tiny ice crystals. It generally forms under otherwise clear or nearly clear skies, so people sometimes also refer to it as clear-sky precipitation. A sun dog, a frequent atmospheric optical phenomenon, is a bright "spot" beside the true sun.[75] Population See also: Demographics of Antarctica, Research stations in Antarctica, and Colonization of Antarctica The "ceremonial" South Pole, at Amundsen–Scott Station Several governments maintain permanent manned research stations on the continent. The number of people conducting and supporting scientific research and other work on the continent and its nearby islands varies from about 1,000 in winter to about 5,000 in the summer, giving it a population density between 70 and 350 inhabitants per million square kilometres (180 and 900 per million square miles) at these times. Many of the stations are staffed year-round, the winter-over personnel typically arriving from their home countries for a one-year assignment. An Orthodox church—Trinity Church, opened in 2004 at the Russian Bellingshausen Station—is manned year-round by one or two priests, who are similarly rotated every year.[77][78] Port Lockroy Museum The first semi-permanent inhabitants of regions near Antarctica (areas situated south of the Antarctic Convergence) were British and American sealers who used to spend a year or more on South Georgia, from 1786 onward. During the whaling era, which lasted until 1966, the population of that island varied from over 1,000 in the summer (over 2,000 in some years) to some 200 in the winter. Most of the whalers were Norwegian, with an increasing proportion of Britons. The settlements included Grytviken, Leith Harbour, King Edward Point, Stromness, Husvik, Prince Olav Harbour, Ocean Harbour and Godthul. Managers and other senior officers of the whaling stations often lived together with their families. Among them was the founder of Grytviken, Captain Carl Anton Larsen, a prominent Norwegian whaler and explorer who, along with his family, adopted British citizenship in 1910. The first child born in the southern polar region was Norwegian girl Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen, born in Grytviken on 8 October 1913, and her birth was registered by the resident British Magistrate of South Georgia. She was a daughter of Fridthjof Jacobsen, the assistant manager of the whaling station, and Klara Olette Jacobsen. Jacobsen arrived on the island in 1904 and became the manager of Grytviken, serving from 1914 to 1921; two of his children were born on the island.[79] Emilio Marcos Palma was the first person born south of the 60th parallel south as well as the first born on the Antarctic mainland, in 1978 at Esperanza Base, on the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula;[80][81] his parents were sent there along with seven other families by the Argentine government to determine if the continent was suitable for family life. In 1984, Juan Pablo Camacho was born at the Frei Montalva Station, becoming the first Chilean born in Antarctica. Several bases are now home to families with children attending schools at the station.[82] As of 2009, eleven children were born in Antarctica (south of the 60th parallel south): eight at the Argentine Esperanza Base[83] and three at the Chilean Frei Montalva Station.[84] Biodiversity See also: Antarctic ecozone, Antarctic flora, Antarctic microorganism, and Wildlife of Antarctica The terrestrial and native all year round species appears to be the descendants of ancestors who lived in geothermally warmed environments during the last ice age, when these areas were the only places on the continent not covered by ice.[85] Antarctopelta fossils Emperor penguins in Ross Sea, Antarctica Animals Few terrestrial vertebrates live in Antarctica, and those that do are limited to the sub-Antarctic islands.[86] Invertebrate life includes microscopic mites like the Alaskozetes antarcticus, lice, nematodes, tardigrades, rotifers, krill and springtails. The flightless midge Belgica antarctica, up to 6 mm (1⁄4 in) in size, is the largest purely terrestrial animal in Antarctica.[87] Another member of Chironomidae is Parochlus steinenii.[88] The snow petrel is one of only three birds that breed exclusively in Antarctica.[89] Some species of marine animals exist and rely, directly or indirectly, on the phytoplankton. Antarctic sea life includes penguins, blue whales, orcas, colossal squids and fur seals. The emperor penguin is the only penguin that breeds during the winter in Antarctica, while the Adélie penguin breeds farther south than any other penguin. The southern rockhopper penguin has distinctive feathers around the eyes, giving the appearance of elaborate eyelashes. King penguins, chinstrap penguins, and gentoo penguins also breed in the Antarctic. The Antarctic fur seal was very heavily hunted in the 18th and 19th centuries for its pelt by sealers from the United States and the United Kingdom. The Weddell seal, a "true seal", is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. Antarctic krill, which congregate in large schools, is the keystone species of the ecosystem of the Southern Ocean, and is an important food organism for whales, seals, leopard seals, fur seals, squid, icefish, penguins, albatrosses and many other birds.[90] A census of sea life carried out during the International Polar Year and which involved some 500 researchers was released in 2010. The research is part of the global Census of Marine Life and has disclosed some remarkable findings. More than 235 marine organisms live in both polar regions, having bridged the gap of 12,000 km (7,456 mi). Large animals such as some cetaceans and birds make the round trip annually. More surprising are small forms of life such as sea cucumbers and free-swimming snails found in both polar oceans. Various factors may aid in their distribution – fairly uniform temperatures of the deep ocean at the poles and the equator which differ by no more than 5 °C, and the major current systems or marine conveyor belt which transport eggs and larval stages.[91] Fungi About 400 species of lichen-forming fungi are known to exist in Antarctica. About 1,150 species of fungi have been recorded from Antarctica, of which about 750 are non-lichen-forming and 400 are lichen-forming.[92][93] Some of these species are cryptoendoliths as a result of evolution under extreme conditions, and have significantly contributed to shaping the impressive rock formations of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and surrounding mountain ridges. The apparently simple morphology, scarcely differentiated structures, metabolic systems and enzymes still active at very low temperatures, and reduced life cycles shown by such fungi make them particularly suited to harsh environments such as the McMurdo Dry Valleys. In particular, their thick-walled and strongly melanised cells make them resistant to UV light. Those features can also be observed in algae and cyanobacteria, suggesting that these are adaptations to the conditions prevailing in Antarctica. This has led to speculation that, if life ever occurred on Mars, it might have looked similar to Antarctic fungi such as Cryomyces antarcticus, and Cryomyces minteri.[94] Some of these fungi are also apparently endemic to Antarctica. Endemic Antarctic fungi also include certain dung-inhabiting species which have had to evolve in response to the double challenge of extreme cold while growing on dung, and the need to survive passage through the gut of warm-blooded animals.[95] Plants About 298 million years ago Permian forests started to cover the continent, and tundra vegetation survived as late as 15 million years ago,[96] but the climate of present-day Antarctica does not allow extensive vegetation to form. A combination of freezing temperatures, poor soil quality, lack of moisture, and lack of sunlight inhibit plant growth. As a result, the diversity of plant life is very low and limited in distribution. The flora of the continent largely consists of bryophytes. There are about 100 species of mosses and 25 species of liverworts, but only three species of flowering plants, all of which are found in the Antarctic Peninsula: Deschampsia antarctica (Antarctic hair grass), Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort) and the non-native Poa annua (annual bluegrass).[97] Growth is restricted to a few weeks in the summer.[92][98] Other organisms Red fluid pours out of Blood Falls at Taylor Glacier. The colour derives from iron oxides. Seven hundred species of algae exist, most of which are phytoplankton. Multicoloured snow algae and diatoms are especially abundant in the coastal regions during the summer.[98] Bacteria have been found living in the cold and dark as deep as 800 m (0.50 mi; 2,600 ft) under the ice.[99] Conservation Dumping of waste, including old vehicles, such as here at the Russian Bellingshausen Station in 1992, is prohibited since the entry into force of the Protocol on Environmental Protection in 1998. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (also known as the Environmental Protocol or Madrid Protocol) came into force in 1998, and is the main instrument concerned with conservation and management of biodiversity in Antarctica. The Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting is advised on environmental and conservation issues in Antarctica by the Committee for Environmental Protection. A major concern within this committee is the risk to Antarctica from unintentional introduction of non-native species from outside the region.[100] The passing of the Antarctic Conservation Act (1978) in the U.S. brought several restrictions to U.S. activity on Antarctica. The introduction of alien plants or animals can bring a criminal penalty, as can the extraction of any indigenous species. The overfishing of krill, which plays a large role in the Antarctic ecosystem, led officials to enact regulations on fishing. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), a treaty that came into force in 1980, requires that regulations managing all Southern Ocean fisheries consider potential effects on the entire Antarctic ecosystem.[1] Despite these new acts, unregulated and illegal fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish (marketed as Chilean Sea Bass in the U.S.), remains a serious problem. The illegal fishing of toothfish has been increasing, with estimates of 32,000 tonnes (35,300 short tons) in 2000.[101][102] Politics Emblem of the Antarctic Treaty since 2002. 29 national Antarctic programmes together supporting science in Antarctica (2009) Several countries claim sovereignty in certain regions. While a few of these countries have mutually recognised each other's claims,[103] the validity of these claims is not recognised universally.[1] New claims on Antarctica have been suspended since 1959, although in 2015 Norway formally defined Queen Maud Land as including the unclaimed area between it and the South Pole.[104] Antarctica's status is regulated by the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and other related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System. Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of 60° S for the purposes of the Treaty System. The treaty was signed by twelve countries including the Soviet Union (and later Russia), the United Kingdom, Argentina, Chile, Australia, and the United States.[105] It set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation and environmental protection, and banned military activity on Antarctica. This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. In 1983 the Antarctic Treaty Parties began negotiations on a convention to regulate mining in Antarctica.[106] A coalition of international organisations[107] launched a public pressure campaign to prevent any minerals development in the region, led largely by Greenpeace International,[108] which operated its own scientific station—World Park Base—in the Ross Sea region from 1987 until 1991[109] and conducted annual expeditions to document environmental effects of humans on Antarctica.[110] In 1988, the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources (CRAMRA) was adopted.[111] The following year, however, Australia and France announced that they would not ratify the convention, rendering it dead for all intents and purposes. They proposed instead that a comprehensive regime to protect the Antarctic environment be negotiated in its place.[112] The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (the "Madrid Protocol") was negotiated as other countries followed suit and on 14 January 1998 it entered into force.[112][113] The Madrid Protocol bans all mining in Antarctica, designating Antarctica a "natural reserve devoted to peace and science". HMS Endurance: the Royal Navy's former Antarctic patrol ship. The Antarctic Treaty prohibits any military activity in Antarctica, including the establishment of military bases and fortifications, military manoeuvres, and weapons testing. Military personnel or equipment are permitted only for scientific research or other peaceful purposes.[114] The only documented military land manoeuvre has been the small Operation NINETY by the Argentine military in 1965.[115] Antarctic territories Main article: Territorial claims in Antarctica Date Country Territory Claim limits Map 1840 France French Southern and Antarctic Lands Adélie Land 142°2′E to 136°11′E Antarctica, France territorial claim.svg 1908 United Kingdom British Antarctic Territory 20°W to 80°W Antarctica, United Kingdom territorial claim.svg 1923 New Zealand New Zealand Ross Dependency 150°W to 160°E Antarctica, New Zealand territorial claim.svg 1929 Norway Norway Peter I Island 68°50′S 90°35′W Antarctica, Norway territorial claim (Peter I Island).svg 1933 Australia Australia Australian Antarctic Territory 160°E to 142°2′E and 136°11′E to 44°38′E Antarctica, Australia territorial claim.svg 1939 Norway Norway Queen Maud Land 44°38′E to 20°W Antarctica, Norway territorial claim (Queen Maud Land, 2015).svg 1940 Chile Antártica Chilena Province Chilean Antarctic Territory 53°W to 90°W Antarctica, Chile territorial claim.svg 1943 Argentina Argentine Antarctica 25°W to 74°W Antarctica, Argentina territorial claim.svg – (none) Unclaimed territory (Marie Byrd Land) 90°W to 150°W (except Peter I Island) Antarctica, unclaimed.svg The Argentine, British and Chilean claims all overlap, and have caused friction. On 18 December 2012, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office named a previously unnamed area Queen Elizabeth Land in tribute to Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee.[116] On 22 December 2012, the UK ambassador to Argentina, John Freeman, was summoned to the Argentine government as protest against the claim.[117] Argentine–UK relations had previously been damaged throughout 2012 due to disputes over the sovereignty of the nearby Falkland Islands, and the 30th anniversary of the Falklands War. The areas shown as Australia's and New Zealand's claims were British territory until they were handed over following the countries' independence. Australia currently claims the largest area. The claims of Britain, Australia, New Zealand, France and Norway are all recognised by each other. Other countries participating as members of the Antarctic Treaty have a territorial interest in Antarctica, but the provisions of the Treaty do not allow them to make their claims while it is in force.[118][119] Brazil has a designated "zone of interest" that is not an actual claim.[120] Peru has formally reserved its right to make a claim.[118][119] Russia has inherited the Soviet Union's right to claim territory under the original Antarctic Treaty.[121] South Africa has formally reserved its right to make a claim.[118][119] United States reserved its right to make a claim in the original Antarctic Treaty.[121] Economy There is no economic activity in Antarctica at present, except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based outside Antarctica.[1] Although coal, hydrocarbons, iron ore, platinum, copper, chromium, nickel, gold and other minerals have been found, they have not been in large enough quantities to exploit.[122] The 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty also restricts a struggle for resources. In 1998, a compromise agreement was reached to place an indefinite ban on mining, to be reviewed in 2048, further limiting economic development and exploitation. The primary economic activity is the capture and offshore trading of fish. Antarctic fisheries in 2000–01 reported landing 112,934 tonnes.[123] Post office Tangra 1091 Antarctic postal services of the Bulgarian scientific station Small-scale "expedition tourism" has existed since 1957 and is currently subject to Antarctic Treaty and Environmental Protocol provisions, but in effect self-regulated by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO). Not all vessels associated with Antarctic tourism are members of IAATO, but IAATO members account for 95% of the tourist activity. Travel is largely by small or medium ship, focusing on specific scenic locations with accessible concentrations of iconic wildlife. A total of 37,506 tourists visited during the 2006–07 Austral summer with nearly all of them coming from commercial ships; 38,478 were recorded in 2015–16.[124][125][126] There has been some concern over the potential adverse environmental and ecosystem effects caused by the influx of visitors. Some environmentalists and scientists have made a call for stricter regulations for ships and a tourism quota.[127] The primary response by Antarctic Treaty Parties has been to develop, through their Committee for Environmental Protection and in partnership with IAATO, "site use guidelines" setting landing limits and closed or restricted zones on the more frequently visited sites. Antarctic sightseeing flights (which did not land) operated out of Australia and New Zealand until the fatal crash of Air New Zealand Flight 901 in 1979 on Mount Erebus, which killed all 257 aboard. Qantas resumed commercial overflights to Antarctica from Australia in the mid-1990s. Antarctic fisheries in 1998–99 (1 July – 30 June) reported landing 119,898 tonnes legally.[128] About thirty countries maintain about seventy research stations (40 year-round or permanent, and 30 summer-only) in Antarctica, with an approximate population of 4000 in summer and 1000 in winter.[1] The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 "AQ" is assigned to the entire continent regardless of jurisdiction. Different country calling codes and currencies[129] are used for different settlements, depending on the administrating country. The Antarctican dollar, a souvenir item sold in the United States and Canada, is not legal tender.[1][130] Research See also: Research stations in Antarctica A full moon and 25-second exposure allowed sufficient light for this photo to be taken at Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station during the long Antarctic night. The station can be seen at far left, the power plant in the centre and the mechanic's garage in the lower right. The green light in the background is the aurora. Each year, scientists from 28 different nations conduct experiments not reproducible in any other place in the world. In the summer more than 4,000 scientists operate research stations; this number decreases to just over 1,000 in the winter.[1] McMurdo Station, which is the largest research station in Antarctica, is capable of housing more than 1,000 scientists, visitors, and tourists. Researchers include biologists, geologists, oceanographers, physicists, astronomers, glaciologists, and meteorologists. Geologists tend to study plate tectonics, meteorites from outer space, and resources from the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. Glaciologists in Antarctica are concerned with the study of the history and dynamics of floating ice, seasonal snow, glaciers, and ice sheets. Biologists, in addition to examining the wildlife, are interested in how harsh temperatures and the presence of people affect adaptation and survival strategies in a wide variety of organisms. Medical physicians have made discoveries concerning the spreading of viruses and the body's response to extreme seasonal temperatures. Astrophysicists at Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station study the celestial dome and cosmic microwave background radiation. Many astronomical observations are better made from the interior of Antarctica than from most surface locations because of the high elevation, which results in a thin atmosphere; low temperature, which minimises the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere; and absence of light pollution, thus allowing for a view of space clearer than anywhere else on Earth. Antarctic ice serves as both the shield and the detection medium for the largest neutrino telescope in the world, built 2 km (1.2 mi) below Amundsen–Scott station.[131] Since the 1970s an important focus of study has been the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica. In 1985, three British scientists working on data they had gathered at Halley Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf discovered the existence of a hole in this layer. It was eventually determined that the destruction of the ozone was caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) emitted by human products. With the ban of CFCs in the Montreal Protocol of 1989, climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070.[132] In September 2006 NASA satellite data revealed that the Antarctic ozone hole was larger than at any other time on record, at 2,750,000 km2 (1,060,000 sq mi).[133] The impacts of the depleted ozone layer on climate changes occurring in Antarctica are not well understood.[132] In 2007 The Polar Geospatial Center was founded. The Polar Geospatial Center uses geospatial and remote sensing technology to provide mapping services to American federally funded research teams. Currently, the Polar Geospatial Center can image all of Antarctica at 50 cm resolution every 45 days.[134] On 6 September 2007 Belgian-based International Polar Foundation unveiled the Princess Elisabeth station, the world's first zero-emissions polar science station in Antarctica to research climate change. Costing $16.3 million, the prefabricated station, which is part of the International Polar Year, was shipped to the South Pole from Belgium by the end of 2008 to monitor the health of the polar regions. Belgian polar explorer Alain Hubert stated: "This base will be the first of its kind to produce zero emissions, making it a unique model of how energy should be used in the Antarctic." Johan Berte is the leader of the station design team and manager of the project which conducts research in climatology, glaciology and microbiology.[135] In January 2008 British Antarctic Survey (BAS) scientists, led by Hugh Corr and David Vaughan, reported (in the journal Nature Geoscience) that 2,200 years ago, a volcano erupted under Antarctica's ice sheet (based on airborne survey with radar images). The biggest eruption in Antarctica in the last 10,000 years, the volcanic ash was found deposited on the ice surface under the Hudson Mountains, close to Pine Island Glacier.[136] A study from 2014 estimated that during the Pleistocene, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) thinned by at least 500 m (1,600 ft), and that thinning since the Last Glacial Maximum for the EAIS area is less than 50 m (160 ft) and probably started after c. 14 ka.[137] Meteorites Antarctic meteorite, named ALH84001, from Mars Meteorites from Antarctica are an important area of study of material formed early in the solar system; most are thought to come from asteroids, but some may have originated on larger planets. The first meteorite was found in 1912, and named the Adelie Land meteorite. In 1969, a Japanese expedition discovered nine meteorites. Most of these meteorites have fallen onto the ice sheet in the last million years. Motion of the ice sheet tends to concentrate the meteorites at blocking locations such as mountain ranges, with wind erosion bringing them to the surface after centuries beneath accumulated snowfall. Compared with meteorites collected in more temperate regions on Earth, the Antarctic meteorites are well-preserved.[138] This large collection of meteorites allows a better understanding of the abundance of meteorite types in the solar system and how meteorites relate to asteroids and comets. New types of meteorites and rare meteorites have been found. Among these are pieces blasted off the Moon, and probably Mars, by impacts. These specimens, particularly ALH84001 discovered by ANSMET, are at the centre of the controversy about possible evidence of microbial life on Mars. Because meteorites in space absorb and record cosmic radiation, the time elapsed since the meteorite hit the Earth can be determined from laboratory studies. The elapsed time since fall, or terrestrial residence age, of a meteorite represents more information that might be useful in environmental studies of Antarctic ice sheets.[138] In 2006 a team of researchers from Ohio State University used gravity measurements by NASA's GRACE satellites to discover the 500-kilometre-wide (300 mi) Wilkes Land crater, which probably formed about 250 million years ago.[139] In January 2013 an 18 kg (40 lb) meteorite was discovered frozen in ice on the Nansen ice field by a Search for Antarctic Meteorites, Belgian Approach (SAMBA) mission.[140] In January 2015 reports emerged of a 2-kilometre (1.2 mi) circular structure, supposedly a meteorite crater, on the surface snow of King Baudouin Ice Shelf. Satellite images from 25 years ago seemingly show it. Ice mass and global sea level See also: Current sea level rise File:Flow of Ice Across Antarctica.ogv The motion of ice in Antarctica Due to its location at the South Pole, Antarctica receives relatively little solar radiation except along the southern summer. This means that it is a very cold continent where water is mostly in the form of ice. Precipitation is low (most of Antarctica is a desert) and almost always in the form of snow, which accumulates and forms a giant ice sheet which covers the land. Parts of this ice sheet form moving glaciers known as ice streams, which flow towards the edges of the continent. Next to the continental shore are many ice shelves. These are floating extensions of outflowing glaciers from the continental ice mass. Offshore, temperatures are also low enough that ice is formed from seawater through most of the year. It is important to understand the various types of Antarctic ice to understand possible effects on sea levels and the implications of global cooling. Sea ice extent expands annually in the Antarctic winter and most of this ice melts in the summer. This ice is formed from the ocean water and floats in the same water and thus does not contribute to rise in sea level. The extent of sea ice around Antarctica (in terms of square kilometers of coverage) has remained roughly constant in recent decades, although the amount of variation it has experienced in its thickness is unclear.[141][142] Melting of floating ice shelves (ice that originated on the land) does not in itself contribute much to sea-level rise (since the ice displaces only its own mass of water). However, it is the outflow of the ice from the land to form the ice shelf which causes a rise in global sea level. This effect is offset by snow falling back onto the continent. Recent decades have witnessed several dramatic collapses of large ice shelves around the coast of Antarctica, especially along the Antarctic Peninsula. Concerns have been raised that disruption of ice shelves may result in increased glacial outflow from the continental ice mass.[143] On the continent itself, the large volume of ice present stores around 70% of the world's fresh water.[52] This ice sheet is constantly gaining ice from snowfall and losing ice through outflow to the sea. Sheperd et al. 2012, found that different satellite methods for measuring ice mass and change were in good agreement and combining methods leads to more certainty with East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changing in mass by +14 ± 43, −65 ± 26, and −20 ± 14 gigatonnes (Gt) per year.[144] The same group's 2018 systematic review study estimated that ice loss across the entire continent was 43 gigatonnes per year on average during the period from 1992 to 2002 but has accelerated to an average of 220 gigatonnes per year during the five years from 2012 to 2017.[145] NASA's Climate Change website indicates a compatible overall trend of greater than 100 gigatonnes of ice loss per year since 2002.[146] A single 2015 study by H. Jay Zwally et al. found instead that the net change in ice mass is slightly positive at approximately 82 gigatonnes per year (with significant regional variation) which would result in Antarctic activity reducing global sea-level rise by 0.23 mm per year.[147] However, one critic, Eric Rignot of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, states that this outlying study's findings "are at odds with all other independent methods: re-analysis, gravity measurements, mass budget method, and other groups using the same data" and appears to arrive at more precise values than current technology and mathematical approaches would permit.[148] East Antarctica is a cold region with a ground base above sea level and occupies most of the continent. This area is dominated by small accumulations of snowfall which becomes ice and thus eventually seaward glacial flows. The mass balance of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet as a whole is thought to be slightly positive (lowering sea level) or near to balance.[149][150][151] However, increased ice outflow has been suggested in some regions.[150][152] Effects of global warming Antarctican Temperature Warming trend from 1957 to 2006 Legend See also: Global warming in Antarctica and Antarctic sea ice Some of Antarctica has been warming up; particularly strong warming has been noted on the Antarctic Peninsula. A study by Eric Steig published in 2009 noted for the first time that the continent-wide average surface temperature trend of Antarctica is slightly positive at >0.05 °C (0.09 °F) per decade from 1957 to 2006. This study also noted that West Antarctica has warmed by more than 0.1 °C (0.2 °F) per decade in the last 50 years, and this warming is strongest in winter and spring. This is partly offset by autumn cooling in East Antarctica.[153] There is evidence from one study that Antarctica is warming as a result of human carbon dioxide emissions,[154] but this remains ambiguous.[155] The amount of surface warming in West Antarctica, while large, has not led to appreciable melting at the surface, and is not directly affecting the West Antarctic Ice Sheet's contribution to sea level. Instead the recent increases in glacier outflow are believed to be due to an inflow of warm water from the deep ocean, just off the continental shelf.[156][157] The net contribution to sea level from the Antarctic Peninsula is more likely to be a direct result of the much greater atmospheric warming there.[158] In 2002 the Antarctic Peninsula's Larsen-B ice shelf collapsed.[159] Between 28 February and 8 March 2008, about 570 km2 (220 sq mi) of ice from the Wilkins Ice Shelf on the southwest part of the peninsula collapsed, putting the remaining 15,000 km2 (5,800 sq mi) of the ice shelf at risk. The ice was being held back by a "thread" of ice about 6 km (4 mi) wide,[160][161] prior to its collapse on 5 April 2009.[162][163] According to NASA, the most widespread Antarctic surface melting of the past 30 years occurred in 2005, when an area of ice comparable in size to California briefly melted and refroze; this may have resulted from temperatures rising to as high as 5 °C (41 °F).[164] A study published in Nature Geoscience in 2013 (online in December 2012) identified central West Antarctica as one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth. The researchers present a complete temperature record from Antarctica's Byrd Station and assert that it "reveals a linear increase in annual temperature between 1958 and 2010 by 2.4±1.2 °C".[165] Ozone depletion Image of the largest Antarctic ozone hole ever recorded due to CFCs accumulation (September 2006) Main article: Ozone depletion There is a large area of low ozone concentration or "ozone hole" over Antarctica. This hole covers almost the whole continent and was at its largest in September 2008, when the longest lasting hole on record remained until the end of December.[166] The hole was detected by scientists in 1985[167] and has tended to increase over the years of observation. The ozone hole is attributed to the emission of chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs into the atmosphere, which decompose the ozone into other gases.[168] Some scientific studies suggest that ozone depletion may have a dominant role in governing climatic change in Antarctica (and a wider area of the Southern Hemisphere).[167] Ozone absorbs large amounts of ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere. Ozone depletion over Antarctica can cause a cooling of around 6 °C in the local stratosphere. This cooling has the effect of intensifying the westerly winds which flow around the continent (the polar vortex) and thus prevents outflow of the cold air near the South Pole. As a result, the continental mass of the East Antarctic ice sheet is held at lower temperatures, and the peripheral areas of Antarctica, especially the Antarctic Peninsula, are subject to higher temperatures, which promote accelerated melting.[167] Models also suggest that the ozone depletion/enhanced polar vortex effect also accounts for the recent increase in sea ice just offshore of the continent.[169] See also ContinentAntarctica.svg Antarctica portal Antarctica Weather Danger Classification Antarctic Plate Crime in Antarctica Holarctic-Antarctic Ice Age List of mountain ranges in Antarctica List of volcanoes in Antarctica Lists of places in Antarctica North Pole Religion in Antarctica Notes The word was originally pronounced without the first /k/ in English, but the spelling pronunciation has become common and is often considered more correct. 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Sibiryakov Voronin Chelyuskin Krassin Gakkel Nuclear-powered icebreakers Lenin Arktika-class icebreaker Antarctic Continent History Expeditions Southern Ocean Roché Bouvet Kerguelen HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Adventure Furneaux Smith San Telmo Vostok Bellingshausen Mirny Lazarev Bransfield Palmer Davis Weddell Morrell Astrolabe Dumont d'Urville United States Exploring Expedition USS Vincennes Wilkes USS Porpoise Ringgold Ross expedition HMS Erebus (J. C. Ross Abernethy) HMS Terror (Crozier) Cooper Challenger expedition HMS Challenger Nares Murray Jason C. A. Larsen "Heroic Age" Belgian Antarctic Expedition Belgica de Gerlache Lecointe Amundsen Cook Arctowski Racoviță Dobrowolski Southern Cross Southern Cross Borchgrevink Discovery Discovery Discovery Hut Gauss Gauss Drygalski Swedish Antarctic Expedition Antarctic O. Nordenskjöld C. A. Larsen Scottish Antarctic Expedition Bruce Scotia Orcadas Base Nimrod Expedition Nimrod French Antarctic Expeditions Pourquoi-Pas Charcot Japanese Antarctic Expedition Shirase Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram Amundsen Framheim Polheim Terra Nova Terra Nova Scott Wilson E. R. Evans Crean Lashly Filchner Australasian Antarctic Expedition SY Aurora Mawson Far Eastern Party Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition Endurance Ernest Shackleton Wild James Caird Ross Sea party Mackintosh Shackleton–Rowett Expedition Quest IPY · IGY Modern research Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE Rymill New Swabia Ritscher Operation Tabarin Marr Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic Survey Operation Windmill Ketchum Ronne Expedition F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition Hillary V. Fuchs Soviet Antarctic Expeditions 1st Somov Klenova Mirny 2nd Tryoshnikov 3rd Tolstikov Antarctic Treaty System Transglobe Expedition Fiennes Burton Lake Vostok Kapitsa Farthest South South Pole HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Adventure Furneaux Weddell HMS Erebus J. C. Ross HMS Terror Crozier Southern Cross Borchgrevink Discovery Barne Nimrod Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams South Magnetic Pole Mawson David Mackay Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim Terra Nova Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold Vostok Station Pole of inaccessibility Pole of Inaccessibility Station Tolstikov Crary A. Fuchs Messner vte Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean Africa Comoros Djibouti Egypt Eritrea France Mayotte Réunion Kenya Madagascar Mauritius Mozambique Seychelles Somalia South Africa Sudan Tanzania Zanzibar Map of the Indian Ocean Asia Bahrain Bangladesh British Indian Ocean Territory United Kingdom Christmas Island (Australia) Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) India Andaman and Nicobar Islands Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Malaysia Maldives Myanmar Oman Pakistan Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand Timor-Leste United Arab Emirates Yemen Other India Jammu and Kashmir Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Indonesia Bali North Sumatra Papua South Sulawesi West Java West Kalimantan Iraq Iraqi Kurdistan Pakistan Azad Kashmir Polar exploration Arctic Ocean History Expeditions Research stations Farthest North North Pole Barentsz Hudson Marmaduke Carolus Parry North Magnetic Pole J. Ross J. C. Ross Abernethy Kane Hayes Polaris expedition Polaris C. F. Hall Bessels British Arctic Expedition HMS Alert Nares HMS Discovery Stephenson Markham Lady Franklin Bay Expedition Greely Lockwood Brainard Nansen's Fram expedition Fram Nansen Johansen Sverdrup Jason Amedeo Andrée's Balloon Expedition S. A. Andrée F. Cook Peary SS Roosevelt Sedov Byrd Norge Amundsen Nobile Wisting Riiser-Larsen Ellsworth Airship Italia Nautilus Wilkins ANT-25 Chkalov Baydukov Belyakov Drifting ice stations NP-1 Papanin Shirshov E. Fyodorov Krenkel NP-36 NP-37 Sedov Badygin Wiese USS Nautilus USS Skate Plaisted Herbert NS Arktika Barneo Arktika 2007 Mir submersibles Sagalevich Chilingarov Iceland Greenland Pytheas Brendan Papar Vikings Naddodd Garðar Ingólfr Norse colonization of the Americas Gunnbjörn Snæbjörn galti Erik the Red Christian IV's expeditions J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Richardson Danish colonization Egede Scoresby Jason Nansen Sverdrup Peary Rasmussen Northwest Passage Northern Canada Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Corte-Real Frobisher Gilbert Davis Hudson Discovery Bylot Baffin Munk I. Fyodorov Gvozdev HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Discovery Clerke Mackenzie Kotzebue J. Ross HMS Griper Parry HMS Hecla Lyon HMS Fury Hoppner Crozier J. C. Ross Coppermine Expedition Franklin Back Dease Simpson HMS Blossom Beechey Franklin's lost expedition HMS Erebus HMS Terror Collinson Rae–Richardson Expedition Rae J. Richardson Austin McClure Expedition HMS Investigator McClure HMS Resolute Kellett Belcher Kennedy Bellot Isabel Inglefield 2nd Grinnell Expedition USS Advance Kane Fox McClintock HMS Pandora Young Fram Sverdrup Gjøa Amundsen Rasmussen Karluk Stefansson Bartlett St. Roch H. Larsen Cowper North East Passage Russian Arctic Pomors Koch boats Willoughby Chancellor Barentsz Mangazeya Hudson Poole Siberian Cossacks Perfilyev Stadukhin Dezhnev Popov Ivanov Vagin Permyakov Great Northern Expedition Bering Chirikov Malygin Ovtsyn Minin V. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh. Laptev D. Laptev Chichagov Lyakhov Billings Sannikov Gedenschtrom Wrangel Matyushkin Anjou Litke Lavrov Pakhtusov Tsivolko Middendorff Austro-Hungarian Expedition Weyprecht Payer Vega Expedition A. E. Nordenskiöld Palander Jeannette Expedition USS Jeannette De Long Melville Yermak Makarov Zarya Toll Kolomeitsev Matisen Kolchak Sedov Rusanov Kuchin Brusilov Expedition Sv. Anna Brusilov Albanov Konrad Wiese Nagórski Taymyr / Vaygach Vilkitsky Maud Amundsen AARI Samoylovich Begichev Urvantsev Sadko Ushakov Glavsevmorput Schmidt Aviaarktika Shevelev A. Sibiryakov Voronin Chelyuskin Krassin Gakkel Nuclear-powered icebreakers Lenin Arktika-class icebreaker Antarctic Continent History Expeditions Southern Ocean Roché Bouvet Kerguelen HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Adventure Furneaux Smith San Telmo Vostok Bellingshausen Mirny Lazarev Bransfield Palmer Davis Weddell Morrell Astrolabe Dumont d'Urville United States Exploring Expedition USS Vincennes Wilkes USS Porpoise Ringgold Ross expedition HMS Erebus (J. C. Ross Abernethy) HMS Terror (Crozier) Cooper Challenger expedition HMS Challenger Nares Murray Jason C. A. Larsen "Heroic Age" Belgian Antarctic Expedition Belgica de Gerlache Lecointe Amundsen Cook Arctowski Racoviță Dobrowolski Southern Cross Southern Cross Borchgrevink Discovery Discovery Discovery Hut Gauss Gauss Drygalski Swedish Antarctic Expedition Antarctic O. Nordenskjöld C. A. Larsen Scottish Antarctic Expedition Bruce Scotia Orcadas Base Nimrod Expedition Nimrod French Antarctic Expeditions Pourquoi-Pas Charcot Japanese Antarctic Expedition Shirase Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram Amundsen Framheim Polheim Terra Nova Terra Nova Scott Wilson E. R. Evans Crean Lashly Filchner Australasian Antarctic Expedition SY Aurora Mawson Far Eastern Party Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition Endurance Ernest Shackleton Wild James Caird Ross Sea party Mackintosh Shackleton–Rowett Expedition Quest IPY · IGY Modern research Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE Rymill New Swabia Ritscher Operation Tabarin Marr Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic Survey Operation Windmill Ketchum Ronne Expedition F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition Hillary V. Fuchs Soviet Antarctic Expeditions 1st Somov Klenova Mirny 2nd Tryoshnikov 3rd Tolstikov Antarctic Treaty System Transglobe Expedition Fiennes Burton Lake Vostok Kapitsa Farthest South South Pole HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Adventure Furneaux Weddell HMS Erebus J. C. Ross HMS Terror Crozier Southern Cross Borchgrevink Discovery Barne Nimrod Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams South Magnetic Pole Mawson David Mackay Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim Terra Nova Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold Vostok Station Pole of inaccessibility Pole of Inaccessibility Station Tolstikov Crary A. Fuchs Messner vte Historic Sites and Monuments in Antarctica South Pole South Pole Coats Land Belgrano II Station Queen Maud Land Dakshin Gangotri Humboldt Mountains Schirmacher Oasis Showa Station Enderby Land Proclamation Island Kemp Land Pole of Inaccessibility Mac. Robertson Land Cape Bruce Princess Elizabeth Land Tryne Islands Vostok Station Walkabout Rocks Queen Mary Land Buromskiy Island Mirny Station Wilkes Land A.B. Dobrowolski Station Adélie Land Débarquement Rock Petrel Island Port Martin George V Land Cape Denison Victoria Land Cape Adare Cape Geology Cape Wadworth Foyn Island Hells Gate Moraine Inexpressible Island Mount Dockery Ross Sea Cape Crozier Cape Evans Cape Royds Discovery Hut Hut Point Peninsula Lewis Bay McMurdo Station Mount Betty Mount Erebus Observation Hill Scott Base Scott's Hut Edward VII Land Scott Nunataks Graham Land Bernardo O'Higgins Station Damoy Point Detaille Island Esperanza Station Hope Bay Horseshoe Island Lambda Island Megalestris Hill Metchnikoff Point Paradise Harbor Paulet Island Port Charcot Port Lockroy San Martin Station Seymour Island Snow Hill Island Stonington Island Waterboat Point Winter Island South Shetlands Antarctic Treaty Monument Arturo Prat Station Great Wall Station Half Moon Beach Henryk Arctowski Station Lame Dog Hut Maxwell Bay Pendulum Cove Point Wild Potter Cove Whalers Bay Yankee Harbour South Orkneys Scotia Bay Stonington Island East Base The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on the surface of Earth and lies on the opposite side of Earth from the North Pole. Situated on the continent of Antarctica, it is the site of the United States Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, which was established in 1956 and has been permanently staffed since that year. The Geographic South Pole is distinct from the South Magnetic Pole, the position of which is defined based on Earth's magnetic field. The South Pole is at the center of the Southern Hemisphere. Contents 1 Geography 1.1 Ceremonial South Pole 1.2 Historic monuments 1.2.1 Amundsen's Tent 1.2.2 Argentine Flagpole 2 Exploration 2.1 Pre-1900 2.2 1900–1950 2.3 1950–present 3 Climate and day and night 4 Time 5 Flora and fauna 6 See also 7 References 8 External links Geography The Ceremonial South Pole in 1998. The Ceremonial South Pole as of February 2008. For most purposes, the Geographic South Pole is defined as the southern point of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface (the other being the Geographic North Pole). However, Earth's axis of rotation is actually subject to very small "wobbles" (polar motion), so this definition is not adequate for very precise work. The geographic coordinates of the South Pole are usually given simply as 90°S, since its longitude is geometrically undefined and irrelevant. When a longitude is desired, it may be given as 0°. At the South Pole, all directions face north. For this reason, directions at the Pole are given relative to "grid north", which points northwards along the prime meridian.[1] Along tight latitude circles, clockwise is east, and counterclockwise is west, opposite to the North Pole. The Geographic South Pole is located on the continent of Antarctica (although this has not been the case for all of Earth's history because of continental drift). It sits atop a featureless, barren, windswept and icy plateau at an altitude of 2,835 metres (9,301 ft) above sea level, and is located about 1,300 km (800 mi) from the nearest open sea at Bay of Whales. The ice is estimated to be about 2,700 metres (9,000 ft) thick at the Pole, so the land surface under the ice sheet is actually near sea level.[2] The polar ice sheet is moving at a rate of roughly 10 metres per year in a direction between 37° and 40° west of grid north,[3] down towards the Weddell Sea. Therefore, the position of the station and other artificial features relative to the geographic pole gradually shift over time. The Geographic South Pole is marked by a stake in the ice alongside a small sign; these are repositioned each year in a ceremony on New Year's Day to compensate for the movement of the ice.[4] The sign records the respective dates that Roald Amundsen and Robert F. Scott reached the Pole, followed by a short quotation from each man, and gives the elevation as "9,301 FT.".[5][6] A new marker stake is designed and fabricated each year by staff at the site.[4] Ceremonial South Pole The Ceremonial South Pole is an area set aside for photo opportunities at the South Pole Station. It is located some meters from the Geographic South Pole, and consists of a metallic sphere on a short bamboo pole, surrounded by the flags of the original Antarctic Treaty signatory states.[citation needed] Historic monuments Argentinian soldiers saluting the flag after erecting the pole in 1965. Amundsen's Tent The tent was erected by the Norwegian expedition led by Roald Amundsen on its arrival on 14 December 1911. It is currently buried beneath the snow and ice in the vicinity of the Pole. It has been designated a Historic Site or Monument (HSM 80), following a proposal by Norway to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting.[7] The precise location of the tent is unknown, but based on calculations of the rate of movement of the ice and the accumulation of snow, it is believed, as of 2010, to lie between 1.8 and 2.5 km (1.1 and 1.5 miles) from the Pole at a depth of 17 m (56 ft) below the present surface.[8] Argentine Flagpole A flagpole erected at the South Geographical Pole in December 1965 by the First Argentine Overland Polar Expedition has been designated a Historic Site or Monument (HSM 1) following a proposal by Argentina to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting.[9] Exploration See also: History of Antarctica, List of Antarctic expeditions, Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, and Farthest South Pre-1900 In 1820, several expeditions claimed to have been the first to have sighted Antarctica, with the very first[clarification needed] being the Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev.[10] The first landing was probably just over a year later when American Captain John Davis, a sealer, set foot on the ice.[11] The basic geography of the Antarctic coastline was not understood until the mid-to-late 19th century. American naval officer Charles Wilkes claimed (correctly) that Antarctica was a new continent, basing the claim on his exploration in 1839–40,[12] while James Clark Ross, in his expedition of 1839–43, hoped that he might be able to sail all the way to the South Pole. (He was unsuccessful.)[13] 1900–1950 Amundsen's party at the South Pole, December 1911. From left to right: Amundsen, Hanssen, Hassel and Wisting (photo by fifth member Bjaaland). British explorer Robert Falcon Scott on the Discovery Expedition of 1901–04 was the first to attempt to find a route from the Antarctic coastline to the South Pole. Scott, accompanied by Ernest Shackleton and Edward Wilson, set out with the aim of travelling as far south as possible, and on 31 December 1902, reached 82°16′ S.[14] Shackleton later returned to Antarctica as leader of the British Antarctic Expedition (Nimrod Expedition) in a bid to reach the Pole. On 9 January 1909, with three companions, he reached 88°23' S – 112 miles (180 km) from the Pole – before being forced to turn back.[15] The first men to reach the Geographic South Pole were the Norwegian Roald Amundsen and his party on December 14, 1911. Amundsen named his camp Polheim and the entire plateau surrounding the Pole King Haakon VII Vidde in honour of King Haakon VII of Norway. Robert Falcon Scott returned to Antarctica with his second expedition, the Terra Nova Expedition, initially unaware of Amundsen's secretive expedition. Scott and four other men reached the South Pole on January 17, 1912, thirty-four days after Amundsen. On the return trip, Scott and his four companions all died of starvation and extreme cold. In 1914 Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition set out with the goal of crossing Antarctica via the South Pole, but his ship, the Endurance, was frozen in pack ice and sank 11 months later. The overland journey was never made. US Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, with the assistance of his first pilot Bernt Balchen, became the first person to fly over the South Pole on November 29, 1929. 1950–present Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station. The ceremonial pole and flags can be seen in the background, slightly to the left of centre, below the tracks behind the buildings. The actual geographic pole is a few more metres to the left. The buildings are raised on stilts to prevent snow build up. It was not until 31 October 1956 that humans once again set foot at the South Pole, when a party led by Admiral George J. Dufek of the US Navy landed there in an R4D-5L Skytrain (C-47 Skytrain) aircraft. The US Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station was established by air over 1956–1957 for the International Geophysical Year and has been continuously staffed since then by research and support personnel.[2] After Amundsen and Scott, the next people to reach the South Pole overland (albeit with some air support) were Edmund Hillary (January 4, 1958) and Vivian Fuchs (January 19, 1958) and their respective parties, during the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition. There have been many subsequent expeditions to arrive at the South Pole by surface transportation, including those by Havola, Crary and Fiennes. The first group of women to reach the pole were Pam Young, Jean Pearson, Lois Jones, Eileen McSaveney, Kay Lindsay and Terry Tickhill in 1969.[16] In 1978-79 Michele Eileen Raney became the first woman to winter at the South Pole.[17] Subsequent to the establishment, in 1987, of the logistic support base at Patriot Hills Base Camp, the South Pole became more accessible to non-government expeditions. On December 30, 1989, Arved Fuchs and Reinhold Messner were the first to traverse Antarctica via the South Pole without animal or motorized help, using only skis and the help of wind.[18][19] Two women, Victoria E. Murden and Shirley Metz reached the pole by land on January 17, 1989.[20] The fastest unsupported journey to the Geographic South Pole from the ocean is 24 days and one hour from Hercules Inlet and was set in 2011 by Norwegian adventurer Christian Eide,[21] who beat the previous solo record set in 2009 by American Todd Carmichael of 39 days and seven hours, and the previous group record also set in 2009 of 33 days and 23 hours.[22] The fastest solo (female), unsupported and unassisted trek to the south pole was performed by Hannah McKeand from the UK in 2006. She made the journey in 39 days 9hrs 33mins. She started on the 19th November 2006 and finished on the 28 December 2006.[23] In the 2011/12 summer, separate expeditions by Norwegian Aleksander Gamme and Australians James Castrission and Justin Jones jointly claimed the first unsupported trek without dogs or kites from the Antarctic coast to the South Pole and back. The two expeditions started from Hercules Inlet a day apart, with Gamme starting first, but completing according to plan the last few kilometres together. As Gamme traveled alone he thus simultaneously became the first to complete the task solo.[24][25][26] On 28 December 2018, the first Briton unassisted journey to the south pole was performed by Captain Lou Rudd who became the second person to make the journey in 56 days.[27] Climate and day and night See also: Climate of Antarctica, Midnight sun, and Polar night During the southern winter (March–September), the South Pole receives no sunlight at all, and from May 11 to August 1, between extended periods of twilight, it is completely dark (apart from moonlight). In the summer (September–March), the sun is continuously above the horizon and appears to move in a counter-clockwise circle. However, it is always low in the sky, reaching a maximum of 23.5° in December. Much of the sunlight that does reach the surface is reflected by the white snow. This lack of warmth from the sun, combined with the high altitude (about 2,800 metres (9,200 ft)), means that the South Pole has one of the coldest climates on Earth (though it is not quite the coldest; that record goes to the region in the vicinity of the Vostok Station, also in Antarctica, which lies at a higher elevation).[28] Temperatures at the South Pole are much lower than at the North Pole, primarily because the South Pole is located at altitude in the middle of a continental land mass, while the North Pole is at sea level in the middle of an ocean, which acts as a reservoir of heat. The South Pole is at an altitude of 9,300 feet (2,800 m) but feels like 11,000 feet (3,400 m).[29]. Centrifugal force from the spin of the planet pulls the atmosphere toward the equator. The South Pole is colder than the North Pole primarly because of the elevation difference and for being in the middle of a continent.[30] The North Pole is a few feet from sea level in the middle of an ocean. In midsummer, as the sun reaches its maximum elevation of about 23.5 degrees, high temperatures at the South Pole in January average at −25.9 °C (−15 °F). As the six-month "day" wears on and the sun gets lower, temperatures drop as well: they reach −45 °C (−49 °F) around sunset (late March) and sunrise (late September). In midwinter, the average temperature remains steady at around −60 °C (−76 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station was −12.3 °C (9.9 °F) on Christmas Day, 2011,[31] and the lowest was −82.8 °C (−117.0 °F) on June 23, 1982[32][33][34] (for comparison, the lowest temperature directly recorded anywhere on earth was −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at Vostok Station on July 21, 1983, though −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) was measured indirectly by satellite in East Antarctica between Dome A and Dome F in August 2010[35]). Mean annual temperature at the South Pole is –49.5 °C (–57.1 °F)[36]. The South Pole has an ice cap climate (Köppen climate classification EF). It resembles a desert, receiving very little precipitation. Air humidity is near zero. However, high winds can cause the blowing of snowfall, and the accumulation of snow amounts to about 7 cm (2.8 in) per year.[36] The former dome seen in pictures of the Amundsen–Scott station is partially buried due to snow storms, and the entrance to the dome had to be regularly bulldozed to uncover it. More recent buildings are raised on stilts so that the snow does not build up against their sides. Climate data for The South Pole Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) −14.4 (6.1) −20.6 (−5.1) −26.7 (−16.1) −27.8 (−18.0) −25.1 (−13.2) −28.8 (−19.8) −33.9 (−29.0) −32.8 (−27.0) −29.3 (−20.7) −25.1 (−13.2) −18.9 (−2.0) −12.3 (9.9) −12.3 (9.9) Average high °C (°F) −26.0 (−14.8) −37.9 (−36.2) −49.6 (−57.3) −53.0 (−63.4) −53.6 (−64.5) −54.5 (−66.1) −55.2 (−67.4) −54.9 (−66.8) −54.4 (−65.9) −48.4 (−55.1) −36.2 (−33.2) −26.3 (−15.3) −45.8 (−50.4) Daily mean °C (°F) −28.4 (−19.1) −40.9 (−41.6) −53.7 (−64.7) −57.8 (−72.0) −58.0 (−72.4) −58.9 (−74.0) −59.8 (−75.6) −59.7 (−75.5) −59.1 (−74.4) −51.6 (−60.9) −38.2 (−36.8) −28.0 (−18.4) −49.5 (−57.1) Average low °C (°F) −29.6 (−21.3) −43.1 (−45.6) −56.8 (−70.2) −60.9 (−77.6) −61.5 (−78.7) −62.8 (−81.0) −63.4 (−82.1) −63.2 (−81.8) −61.7 (−79.1) −54.3 (−65.7) −40.1 (−40.2) −29.1 (−20.4) −52.2 (−62.0) Record low °C (°F) −41.1 (−42.0) −58.9 (−74.0) −71.1 (−96.0) −75.0 (−103.0) −78.3 (−108.9) −82.8 (−117.0) −80.6 (−113.1) −79.3 (−110.7) −79.4 (−110.9) −72.0 (−97.6) −55.0 (−67.0) −41.1 (−42.0) −82.8 (−117.0) Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.3 (0.01) 0.6 (0.02) 0.2 (0.01) 0.1 (0.00) 0.2 (0.01) 0.1 (0.00) — — 0.1 (0.00) 0.1 (0.00) 0.1 (0.00) 0.3 (0.01) 2.3 (0.09) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 1.6 Average snowy days 22.0 19.6 13.6 11.4 17.2 17.3 18.2 17.5 11.7 16.7 16.9 20.6 203.0 Mean monthly sunshine hours 406.1 497.2 195.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 34.1 390.6 558.0 616.9 2,698.2 Mean daily sunshine hours 13.1 17.6 6.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 12.6 18.6 19.9 7.4 Source #1: (temperatures, 1981–2010, extremes 1957–present)[37] Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (precipitation 1957–1988 and sun 1978–1993),[38] NOAA (snowy days data, 1961–1988)[39] Time In most places on Earth, local time is determined by longitude, such that the time of day is more-or-less synchronised to the position of the sun in the sky (for example, at midday the sun is roughly at its highest). This line of reasoning fails at the South Pole, where the sun rises and sets only once per year, and all lines of longitude, and hence all time zones, converge. There is no a priori reason for placing the South Pole in any particular time zone, but as a matter of practical convenience the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station keeps New Zealand Time (UTC+12/UTC+13). This is because the US flies its resupply missions ("Operation Deep Freeze") out of McMurdo Station, which is supplied from Christchurch, New Zealand. Flora and fauna Due to its exceptionally harsh climate, there are no native resident plants or animals at the South Pole. Remarkably, though, off-course south polar skuas and snow petrels are occasionally seen there.[40] In 2000 it was reported that microbes had been detected living in the South Pole ice

  • Condition: In Good Condition for its age ie over 100 years old
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